Wikipedia and the other Wikimedia projects are run from server racks located in several data centres.
The Wikimedia Foundation's network topology is described on the "Network design" page on Wikitech.
- Our DNS servers run gdnsd. We use geographical DNS to distribute requests between our five data centers (3x US, 1x Europe, 1x Asia) depending on the location of the client.
- We use Linux Virtual Server (LVS) on commodity servers to load balance incoming requests. LVS is also used as an internal load balancer to distribute MediaWiki requests. For back end monitoring and failover, we have our own system called PyBal.
- For regular MediaWiki web requests (articles/API) we use Varnish and Apache Traffic Server caching proxy servers in front of Apache HTTP Server.
- Semua server kami menjalankan Debian GNU/Linux.
- Untuk penyimpanan objek terdistribusi, kami menggunakan Swift.
- Our structured data is stored in MariaDB since 2013. We group wikis into clusters, and each cluster is served by several MariaDB servers, replicated in a single-master configuration.
- We use Memcached for caching of database query and computation results.
- For full-text search we use Elasticsearch (Extension:CirrusSearch).
- https://noc.wikimedia.org/ – berkas konfigurasi Wikimedia.
As of September 2022, we have the following colocation facilities (each name is derived from an acronym of the facility’s company and an acronym of a nearby airport):
- Application services (primary) at Equinix in Ashburn, Virginia (Washington, DC area).
- Application services (secondary) at CyrusOne in Carrollton, Texas (Dallas-Fort Worth area).
- Caching at EvoSwitch in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
- Caching at United Layer in San Francisco.
- Caching at Equinix in Singapore.
- Caching at Digital Realty in Marseille.
The backend web and database servers are in Ashburn, with Carrollton to handle emergency fallback in the future. Carrollton was chosen for this as a result of the 2013 Datacenter RfC. At EvoSwitch, we have a Varnish cache cluster and several miscellaneous servers. The Kennisnet location is now used only for network access and routing.
Ashburn (eqiad) became the primary data center in January 2013, taking over from Tampa (pmtpa and sdtpa) which had been the main data centre since 2004. Around April 2014, sdtpa (Equinix – formerly Switch and Data – in Tampa, Florida, provided networking for pmtpa) was shut down, followed by pmtpa (Hostway – formerly PowerMedium – in Tampa, Florida) in October 2014.
In the past we've had other caching locations like Seoul (yaseo, Yahoo!) and Paris (lopar, Lost Oasis); the WMF 2010–2015 strategic plan reach target states: "additional caching centers in key locations to manage increased traffic from Latin America, Asia and the Middle East, as well as to ensure reasonable and consistent load times no matter where a reader is located."
EvoSwitch and Kennisnet are recognised as benefactors for their in-kind donations. See the current list of benefactors.
A list of servers and their functions used to be available at the server roles page; no such list is currently maintained publicly (perhaps the private racktables tool has one). It used to be possible to see a compact table of all servers grouped by type on icinga, but this is no longer publicly available. The puppet configuration provides a pretty good reference for software what each server runs however.
Status dan monitor
You can check one of the following sites if you want to know if the Wikimedia servers are overloaded, or if you just want to see how they are doing.
Data center overview with total bandwidth, non-idle CPU and load per group of servers; versions also exist with a per-subcluster dropdown and total numbers without graphs(down in July 2019)
- https://grafana.wikimedia.org/ should get you started
- Icinga (private)
- Networking latency
If you are seeing errors in real time, visit #wikimedia-techsambungkan on irc.libera.chat. Check the topic to see if someone is already looking into the problem you are having. If not, please report your problem to the channel. It would be helpful if you could report specific symptoms, including the exact text of any error messages, what you were doing right before the error, and what server(s) are generating the error, if you can tell.
In 2017, the WMF board of trustees adopted a resolution containing a commitment to minimize the Foundation's overall environmental impact, especially around data centres through using green energy. The community-led Sustainability Initiative, created in 2015, aims at reducing the environmental impact of the servers by calling for renewable energy to power them.
The Wikimedia Foundation's servers are spread out in five colocation data centers in Virginia, Texas and San Francisco in the United States, Amsterdam and Marseille in Europe, and Singapore in Asia.
In 2021, the servers used 358.8 kW (kilowatts), summing up to about 3.143 GW h (gigawatt hours) of electrical energy per year. The total carbon footprint of the servers was 1,073 metric tons CO2-eq in 2021.
Only the few servers in Amsterdam and in Marseille run on renewable energy, the other use different conventional energy mixes. In 2016, just 9% of Wikimedia Foundation data centers' energy came from renewable sources, with the rest split evenly between coal, gas and nuclear power (34%, 28%, and 28%, respectively). The bulk of the Wikimedia Foundation's electricity demand is in Virginia and Texas, which unfortunately have both very fossil fuel heavy grids.
|Nama server||Lokasi pusat data||Penyedia||Tanggal dibuka||Konsumsi energi rata-rata (kW)||Sumber energi||Jejak karbon (CO2/tahun)||Renewable option and cost|
|Equinix (Situs web)
||Februari 2011||Mei 2016: 130
Mei 2015: 152
|32% batu bara
20% gas alam
17% energi terbarukan
|1.040.000 pon = 520 ton pendek = 470 ton metrik
= 0,32 * 130 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 2,1 pon CO2/kWh untuk batu bara
+ 0,20 * 130 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 1,22 pon CO2/kWh untuk gas alam
+ 0,25 * 130 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir
+ 0,36 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan
|In 2015, Equinix made "a long-term commitment to use 100 percent clean and renewable energy". In 2017, Equinix renewed this pledge.|
|CyrusOne (Situs web)
||Mei 2014||Mei 2016: 77
Mei 2015: 70
|23% batu bara
56% gas alam
14% angin (Oncor/Ercot)
790,000 lb = 400 short tons = 360 metric tons = 0.23 * 77 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 2.1 lb CO2/kWh for coal
+ 0.56 * 77 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 1.22lb CO2/kWh for nat gas
+ 0,06 * 77 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir
+ 0,15 * 77 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan
2031 BE Netherlands
|EvoSwitch (Situs web)||Desember 2008||Mei 2016: < 10
Mei 2015: 10
|"kombinasi tenaga angin, air dan biomassa"||0||tidak ada|
|ulsfo||San Francisco, CA
|UnitedLayer (Situs web)
||Juni 2012||Mei 2016: < 5
Mei 2015: < 5
|25% gas alam
30% energi terbarukan
6% tenaga air
17% tidak diketahui (PG&E)
13,000 lb = 6.7 short tons = 6.1 metric tons (+ unspecified) = 0.00 * 5 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 2.1 lb CO2/kWh for coal
+ 0,25 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 1,22 pon CO2/kWh untuk gas alam
+ 0,23 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir
+ 0,36 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan ataupun tenga air
+ 0,17 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * ? pon CO2/kWh untuk energi yang tak dijelaskan
|eqsin||Singapore||Equinix (Situs web)||?||?||?||?||?|
|drmrs||Marseille||Digital Realty (Website)||?||?||?||?||?|
Info perangkat keras
- Technical FAQ – How about the hardware?
- Your donations at work: new servers for Wikipedia, by Brion Vibber, 02-12-2009
- wikitech:Clusters – technical and usually more up-to-date information on the Wikimedia clusters
- Server admin log – Documents server changes (especially software changes)
Offsite traffic pages
Perencanaan jangka panjang
- Cache strategy (draft from 2006)
- PHP caching and optimization (draft from 2007)
- Hardware orders up to 2007
- ↑ See MediaWiki analysis, MediaWiki WMF-supported extensions analysis.
- ↑ "Wikipedia Adopts MariaDB" [Wikipedia Adopts MariaDB] (text/html). blog.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2013-04-22. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- ↑ Suffered a major DoS attack on September 6/7, 2019. See dedicated article on WMF website.
- ↑ Wikimedia Foundation Environmental Sustainability (Carbon Footprint) Report for 2021