Peladen-peladen Wikimedia

This page is a translated version of the page Wikimedia servers and the translation is 56% complete.
Wikimedia Meta-Wiki


Bahasa lainnya di Wikipedia: de, es, fr, it, ja, ko, zh, uk

Wikipedia and the other Wikimedia projects are run from several racks full of servers. See also Wikimedia Foundation's technical blog and blog posts by Phabricator users.

Arsitektur sistem

Simplified overview of the MediaWiki software as deployed by Wikimedia Foundation (as of January 2020). Essentially a complex version of a LAMP "stack".

Topologi jaringan

The Network topology is described in "Network design" at Wikitech.

Perangkat lunak

  • Our DNS servers run gdnsd. We use geographical DNS to distribute requests between our five data centers (3x US, 1x Europe, 1x Asia) depending on the location of the client.
  • We use Linux Virtual Server (LVS) on commodity servers to load balance incoming requests. LVS is also used as an internal load balancer to distribute MediaWiki requests. For back end monitoring and failover, we have our own system called PyBal.
  • For distributed object storage we use Swift.
  • Our structured data is stored in MariaDB since 2013.[2] We group wikis into clusters, and each cluster is served by several MariaDB servers, replicated in a single-master configuration.
  • We use Memcached for caching of database query and computation results.
Wikimedia server racks at CyrusOne


As of May 2018, we have the following colocation facilities (each name is derived from an acronym of the facility’s company and an acronym of a nearby airport):

Application services (primary) at Equinix in Ashburn, Virginia (Washington, DC area).
Application services (secondary) at CyrusOne in Carrollton, Texas (Dallas-Fort Worth area).
Caching at EvoSwitch in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.[3]
Caching at United Layer in San Francisco.

Caching at Equinix in Singapore.


The backend web and database servers are in Ashburn, with Carrollton to handle emergency fallback in the future. Carrollton was chosen for this as a result of the 2013 Datacenter RfC. At EvoSwitch, we have a Varnish cache cluster and several miscellaneous servers. The Kennisnet location is now used only for network access and routing.

Ashburn (eqiad) became the primary data center in January 2013, taking over from Tampa (pmtpa and sdtpa) which had been the main data centre since 2004. Around April 2014, sdtpa (Equinix – formerly Switch and Data – in Tampa, Florida, provided networking for pmtpa) was shut down, followed by pmtpa (Hostway – formerly PowerMedium – in Tampa, Florida) in October 2014.

In the past we've had other caching locations like Seoul (yaseo, Yahoo!) and Paris (lopar, Lost Oasis); the WMF 2010–2015 strategic plan reach target states: "additional caching centers in key locations to manage increased traffic from Latin America, Asia and the Middle East, as well as to ensure reasonable and consistent load times no matter where a reader is located."

EvoSwitch and Kennisnet are recognised as benefactors for their in-kind donations. See the current list of benefactors.

A list of servers and their functions used to be available at the server roles page; no such list is currently maintained publicly (perhaps the private racktables tool has one). It used to be possible to see a compact table of all servers grouped by type on icinga, but this is no longer publicly available. The puppet configuration provides a pretty good reference for software what each server runs however.

B-roll of servers in Texas in 2015

Status dan monitor

You can check one of the following sites if you want to know if the Wikimedia servers are overloaded, or if you just want to see how they are doing.

If you are seeing errors in real time, visit #wikimedia-techconnect on Check the topic to see if someone is already looking into the problem you are having. If not, please report your problem to the channel. It would be helpful if you could report specific symptoms, including the exact text of any error messages, what you were doing right before the error, and what server(s) are generating the error, if you can tell.

Penggunaan energi

The Sustainability Initiative aims at reducing the environmental impact of the servers by calling for renewable energy to power them.

The Wikimedia Foundation's servers are spread out in five colocation data centers in Virginia, Texas and San Francisco in the United States, Amsterdam in Europe, and Singapore in Asia. As of May 2016, the servers use 222 kW, summing up to about 2 GWh of electrical energy per year. For comparison: An average household in the United States uses 11 MWh/year, the average for Germany is 3 MWh/year.

Only the few servers in Amsterdam run on renewable energy, the other use different conventional energy mixes. Overall, just 9% of Wikimedia Foundation data centers' energy comes from renewable sources, with the rest split evenly between coal, gas and nuclear power (34%, 28%, and 28%, respectively). The bulk of the Wikimedia Foundation's electricity demand is in Virginia and Texas, which unfortunately have both very fossil fuel heavy grids.

Nama server Lokasi pusat data Penyedia Tanggal dibuka

!Average energy consumption (kW)

Sumber energi Jejak karbon (CO2/tahun)

!Renewable option and cost

eqiad Ashburn, VA

20146-20149 USA

Equinix (Situs web) Februari 2011 Mei 2016: 130

Mei 2015: 152

32% batu bara

20% gas alam

25% nuklir

17% energi terbarukan

1,040,000 lb = 520 short tons = 470 metric tons

= 0.32 * 130 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 2.1 lb CO2/kWh for coal

+ 0.20 * 130 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 1.22lb CO2/kWh for nat gas

+ 0,25 * 130 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 lb CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir

+ 0,36 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 lb CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan

In 2015, Equinix made "a long-term commitment to use 100 percent clean and renewable energy". In 2017, Equinix renewed this pledge.
codfw Carrollton, TX

75007 USA

CyrusOne (Situs web) Mei 2014 Mei 2016: 77

Mei 2015: 70

23% batu bara

56% gas alam

6% nuklir

1% hydro/biomass/solar/other

14% angin (Oncor/Ercot)

790,000 lb = 400 short tons = 360 metric tons

= 0.23 * 77 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 2.1 lb CO2/kWh for coal

+ 0.56 * 77 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 1.22lb CO2/kWh for nat gas

+ 0,06 * 77 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 lb CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir

+ 0,15 * 77 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 lb CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan

esams Haarlem

2031 BE Netherlands

EvoSwitch (Situs web) Desember 2008 Mei 2016: < 10

Mei 2015: 10

"kombinasi tenaga angin, air dan biomassa" 0 tidak ada
ulsfo San Francisco, CA

94124 USA

UnitedLayer (Situs web) Juni 2012 Mei 2016: < 5

Mei 2015: < 5

25% gas alam

23% nuklir

30% energi terbarukan

6% tenaga air

17% tidak diketahui (PG&E)

13,000 lb = 6.7 short tons = 6.1 metric tons (+ unspecified)

= 0.00 * 5 kW * 8765.76 hr/yr * 2.1 lb CO2/kWh for coal

+ 0,25 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 1,22 pon CO2/kWh untuk gas alam

+ 0,23 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 pon CO2/kWh untuk tenaga nuklir

+ 0,36 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * 0 lb CO2/kWh untuk energi terbarukan ataupun tenga air

+ 0,17 * 5 kW * 8765,76 jam/tahun * ? pon CO2/kWh untuk energi yang tak dijelaskan

eqsin Singapore Equinix (Situs web) ? ? ? ? ?

Lihat pula

Info perangkat keras

Log-log pengurus

Offsite traffic pages

Perencanaan jangka panjang

Informasi historis


  1. See MediaWiki analysis, MediaWiki WMF-supported extensions analysis.
  2. "Wikipedia Adopts MariaDB" [Wikipedia Adopts MariaDB] (text/html). Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2013-04-22. Retrieved 2014-07-20. 
  3. Suffered a major DoS attack on September 6/7, 2019. See dedicated article on WMF website.