Wikimania 2015 bids/Arusha
- 1 Over View
- 2 Introduction
- 3 Our Vision and Mission as an Sub - Saharan Africa
- 4 Why Wikimania 2015 in Arusha?
- 5 About Arusha City
- 6 Good Government in Tanzania
- 7 East African Community
- 8 Accommodation
- 9 Conference Location
- 10 Budget
- 11 Fundraising Strategy
- 12 Partners
- 13 Traveling to Arusha
- 14 SOUTH AMERICA
- 15 NORTH AMERICA
- 16 EUROPE
- 17 ASIA
- 18 Africa
- 19 Tourism Opportunities
- 20 Non-WIKI Related Reasons to meet in Arusha City
- 21 Supports
- 22 The Conference Structure
- 23 Self evaluation
- 24 Conference Structure
- 25 Gallery of photos
- 26 References
- One Pre conference accompanied with celebration of 10th year's anniversary of Wikimania Conference followed by three conference days including a study tour day at Ngorongoro Crater on 4th - 8th of August 2014.
- Proposed venue: at |Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge ] in the Tanzania Convention Center distanced from 1 to 3 minutes by walk from the rooms of the Lodge.
- Free 24 hour high-bandwidth WiFi brought in especially for the full duration of the conference.
- The Organizing team in collaboration with the Ngurdoto Mountain lodge management will organize numerous internet providers and conferences technicians for a number required to cover any technical requirements around the compound.
- The Wikimania 2015 Bids Conference coordinator Mr. Francis Kaswahili has visited the all the listed Hotels in arusha and the proposed conference center and see him self about Ngurdoto Mountain lodge with all environments of the venues wonders and to give his view about it.Arusha has a lot of influences also has a an International conference center (AICC) with capacity of 1000 people out of the need of the Bid team and thats was a reason of shifting the conference to Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge the exactly and capably with real comfortably to our participants stay if Arusha given that opportunity.
Our Vision and Mission as an Sub - Saharan AfricaEdit
We believe that there are two main principles that underline the purpose of Wikimania since started, namely offering a bird's-eye view of Wikimedia projects and the "Wiki phenomenon", and reaching out to people, especially those outside the North American, European and Asian"center" of the Wikimedia movement we are very few Wikimedians and Wikipedians in Africa. But its our belief that the small Wikimedians and Wikipedians of today will be big tomorrow
Wikimania is a unique opportunity for the Wikimedian community to comprehensively review all aspects related to the Wikimedia projects. It allows Wikipedians and other Wikimedians to step outside the daily routine, learn about the overall concept of Wikimedia, understand how it influences and is being influenced by society, and how it relates to other projects and ideas. The conference allows the attendees to exchange opinions and insights, and exposes them to the work and thinking beyond the projects themselves. Arusha as a party of Tanzania in the African continent, we see the Wikimania conference as an crucial event and that is at the same time educational, promotional, and social; our planning aims to support all of these aspects and purposes. African scholars have been in the fore-front of research about the influence of the Internet, "Wiki culture", collaborative work and crowd sourcing on 21st century culture. Many African researchers flew across the world to attend previous Wikimanias. This is a chance to meet these leading researchers in their home base, and see recent fruits of their work. It our believed that The Wikimania conference will make them to more about Wikimedia and Wikipedia and to be enabled to enter in pages for learning and editing where they founds a need of done.
Tanzania is the center of the Swahili-speaking community but it is also home to East Africans Community , most particularly Swahili is main language- and English-speaking. Arusha is the base of the Tanzania Rwandees…. We plan Wikimania as an outreach event aiming at increasing the number of Wikimedians and Wikipedians in Africa, this conference is a beneficiary Africans community to become IP Users.
To increase awareness for Africans to this opportunity, we have secured sponsors for a large promotional budget (which will enable signs and large banners to be placed around the city of Arusha), and publications in various media outlets and in various languages.
Based on criticism we have read about some previous Wikimania events, we seek to strengthen the social ties and increase cooperation between Wikipedians and Wikimedians from around the world. In order to facilitate better social connections between the attendees, we have arranged that most meals will be buffet style, served in the venue's garden, allowing socializing throughout the event (without hindering the lecture periods). The dinners will take the form of a cocktail party on the first day, and an early arrivals cocktail party the day before enabling attendees to get to know each other from the beginning of the conference. There is also a special party at the end. We have arranged for a 24 hour lounge, to enable our participants wishing bon voyage into the night.
We believe the city of Arusha is ideal for the advancement of the targeted goal, as it has wonderful weather in the afternoon and night enabling outside garden and our special parties. The proximity of the city to various religious and historical sites lets us provide tours to the site. We see these tours as part of the social bonding activities offered to participants, allowing them to "adventure" together.
Why Wikimania 2015 in Arusha?Edit
North Africa, Asia, South America North America and Europe have already hosted the Wikimedia International Conference of wikimania within their national borders since estabished and the first opportunity were given to Frankfurt, Germany in 2005, Boston, United States 2006, Taipei, (Taiwan) 2007, Alexandria, Egypt 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2009, Gdańsk, Poland 2010, Haifa, Israel 2011, w: Washington, D.C Washington, D.C |., United States2012, Hong Kong, China is now on progress from 7th -11th of August 2013 and For Wikimania 2014, Official bids have been given for London (United Kingdom) and Arusha (Tanzania. It is now time for Sub SaharaAfrica to this Opportunity, as we mentioned the venue of hosting this Conference if our City chosen by the Jury’s, we planed to host the event at the Tanzania Convention Center as hopefully that Wikimedia stands for all.
About Arusha CityEdit
The town was founded by German colonialists when the territory was part of German East Africa in 1900 . A garrison town, it was named after the local tribe Wa-Arusha, who are known as Larusa by the Maasai.
The German military fortress, called a Boma, armed with a mounted Maxim machine gun, was completed in 1901. The first commander was First Lieutenant George Kuster - derogatorily referred to in Swahili as "Bwana Fisi" meaning "Mr. Hyena". After 1903 Arusha quickly developed into a significant trading and administrative centre, with about two dozen Indian and Arab shops clustered along what is today Boma Road.
Arusha has been crucial in the history of the modern Tanzania. Official documents ceding independence to Tanganyika were signed by the United Kingdom at Arusha in 1961. Also, the Arusha Declaration was signed in 1967 in Arusha.
The Arusha Accords were signed at the city of Arusha on August 4, 1993, by representatives of competing factions in the Rwandan civil war.
In 1994 the UN Security Council decided by its United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994 that Arusha should host the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. The establishment of the tribunal with its foreign employees has influenced the local economy of the city increasing the cost of living for residents. The tribunal is about to downsize due to its closure in 2014, but its legal successor, the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1966, will continue entertaining a branch in Arusha, opening on 1 July 2012.
Arusha officially declared a city on 1 July 2006 by the Tanzanian government.
Industry and economyEdit
The primary industry of the city is the service sector. The city hosts numerous small and large businesses, banking, retail and commercial enterprises thus making it the financial and cultural capital of the Arusha region. The city of Arusha has the largest manufacturing sector in the region with breweries, tyre manufacturing and agro-forest processing, and a large pharmaceuticals maker.
Tourism is also a major contributor to the economy of the city of Arusha, being the second largest contributor of income in Tanzania. Given the city's location near some of the most greatest national parks and game reserves in Africa including Serengeti National Park, Kilimanjaro National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area among others. Many documentary and feature-length films have been set in and around Arusha, including the 1962 Howard Hawks film Hatari with John Wayne.
The city is also home to the famous Arusha International Conference Center, host to many international meetings,
Among Arusha's notable districts are the Central Business Area, located by the Clock tower, Sekei in the North-West which is largely residential with a vibrant nightlife, Njiro, a middle-class rapidly-growing suburb in the South, and Tengeru, a lively market-town in the East.
North of Arusha are districts called Karatu, Ngorongoro, Monduli, Arumeru and Longido, about 90 minutes north of Arusha by w:daladala along the Arusha-Nairobi Road. Robanda Safari Camp is one of the favorite Safari Camps, located just outside Serengeti Ikoma Gate. This location was carefully chosen so as to be right in the path of the wildebeest migration. The best time to witness this spectacular migration is from May to August and from October to December. There is a high animal concentration year round though, with big herds of wildebeest and zebra, elephant and giraffe. Other animal species include lion, hyena, gazelle, w:topi, and buffalo.
Arusha's clock tower w:Cape Town, therefore representing the halfway point between the two termini of the old w:British Empire in w:Africa. However, the actual w:great circle midpoint between these two cities lies in central Congo.date=October 2012 The clock tower is currently adorned by the logo of the w:Coca-Cola Company.is popularly supposed to be situated at the midpoint between Cairo and
Arusha is mostly served by Kilimanjaro International Airport for international travelers, some Template:Convert east, approximately halfway to Moshi. The airport provides international and domestic flights. Arusha Airport is located to the west of the city and serves more than 87,000 passengers yearly. Travel by road can be done through privately run coaches (buses) to Nairobi, Dodoma and Dar Es Salaam, and other major cities in the nation. Klm has a shuttle operating every day from Arusha city center to Kilimanjaro International Airport for $ 15 per person and $ 10 from ngurdoto to KIA either Arusha has local transport of min buses or Hice known as dala - dala (daldala) in swahili means five five operating around streets of Arusha City for the price of Ths 300. Transport from the city center to Ngurdoto is about 2 - 5 USD by min buses and 30 to Mgurdoto (USA RIVER)
Geography and climateEdit
Despite its proximity to the equator, Arusha's elevation of Template:Convert on the southern slopes of Mount Meru keeps temperatures relatively low and alleviates humidity. Cool dry air is prevalent for much of the year. The temperature ranges between 13 and 30 degrees Celsius with an average around 25 degrees. It has distinct wet and dry seasons, and experiences an eastern prevailing wind from the Indian Ocean, a couple of hundred miles east. Almost within the entire city; if you go north you will be going up hill, and going south is always down hill.
|Climate data for Arusha|
Cultural and SportsEdit
Arusha has moderate weather, a location near scenic countryside and a lively local and International Music, Traditional and creative Dance scene. Tanzanian hip-hop is popular with the youth market. It is mostly performed in Swahili, with genres influenced by African American music, locally known as African Hip Hop. Some examples of this genre are the band X Plastaz, singers Nakaaya, Nako 2 Nako, Watengwa and Waturutumbi. The city of Arusha hosts some of the largest Tanzanian festivals within the area and at the same inviting groups of Music and Traditional groups from Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, Kilimanjaro, Mwanza, Zanzibar, also groups from Kenya, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda including the annual of celebrating the Nane Nane (agricultural festival). Nane Nane is a vibrant public holiday held every August, nane nane means "eight eight" in Swahili). Farmers and other stakeholders come showcase products and network. Nane Nane festival attracts up to a half million people from around the world every year. The city also hosts a yearly festival sponsored by local philanthropists that bring artists from around the world. Artists like Shaggy and Ja Rule have performed in Arusha. The Wikimania 2014 bid team if won the hosting of this conference we’ll bring to Arusha a number of groups Like Dar Creators, Jembe Culture, Msondo Ngoma, Sikinde and many more groups to shape our conference and celebration of 10 years of Wikimania
The city Arusha is also known for its vibrant night life, with popular local night clubs like the Velocity, Saba Saba, Colobus Club and the Blue Triple 'A' Club. The city Hosts The National Natural History Museum. The museum contains three exhibits on early man, plants and animals of the region, and the history of the city. There is a small museum adjacent to the Uhuru monument which displays information about the proceedings of the Arusha Declaration in 1967. The city of Arusha is also base for East Africa's first indigenous media center - Aang Serian Drum. The city's cuisine is a blend of dishes from various cultures around Tanzania and the world. Nyama Choma, Kiti moto, Kuku choma is very popular barbecue dish and is usually served with local cold beer and Pili Pili. Chips mayai is another popular local dish.
Arusha Universities and HealthEdit
Arushan children attend public schools located in almost every ward of the city. There are four international schools in Arusha International School Moshi Arusha Campus Arusha International school, Braeburn School, and St.Constantine's International School. The city of Arusha is home to the National College of Tourism - Arusha Campus, Arusha Technical college, Tengeru Institute of community Development, The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Eastern and Southern African Management Institute, MS Training Centre for Development Cooperation , The Institute of Accountancy Arusha, Forestry Training Institute, Olmotonyi, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Makumira University, The Arusha University and The Mount Meru University. Whereas plan for Aga Khan University-Arusha Campus is in the initial stages. Arusha is home to the largest medical hospitals in Arusha Region. Mount Meru Hospital and Arusha Lutheran Medical Center are some of the largest in the city. Universities in Africa
Good Government in TanzaniaEdit
The United Republic of Tanzania is a member state of the African Union (AU) this country itself was engaged in the program of APRM. The African Peer Review Mechanism was established by the declaration of the 37th Summit of the then Organisation of African Unity held in July 2001 in Lusaka, Zambia, and adopted a document setting out a new vision for the revival and development of Africa—which was to become known as the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).
In July 2002, the Durban AU summit supplemented NEPAD with a Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance. According to the Declaration, states participating in NEPAD ‘believe in just, honest, transparent, accountable and participatory government and probity in public life’. Accordingly, they ‘undertake to work with renewed determination to enforce’, among other things, the rule of law; the equality of all citizens before the law; individual and collective freedoms; the right to participate in free, credible and democratic political processes; and adherence to the separation of powers, including protection for the independence of the judiciary and the effectiveness of parliaments.
The Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance also committed participating states to establish an African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) to promote adherence to and fulfillment of its commitments. The Durban summit adopted a document setting out the stages of peer review and the principles by which the APRM should operate.
In March 2003, the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee, meeting in Abuja, Nigeria, adopted a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the APRM. This MOU effectively operates as a treaty; it came into effect immediately with the agreement of six countries to be subject to its terms. Those countries that do not accede to the document are not subject to review. The March 2003 meeting also adopted a set of ‘objectives, standards, criteria and indicators’ for the APRM. The meeting agreed to the establishment of a secretariat for the APRM and the appointment of a seven-person ‘panel of eminent persons’ to oversee the conduct of the APRM process and ensure its integrity.See also:The APRM in Tanzania
East African CommunityEdit
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising five countries in East Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Pierre Nkurunziza, the President of the Republic of Burundi, is the EAC's current Chairman. The organisation was originally founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was officially revived on July 7, 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the w:Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and the w:Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three. The EAC is an integral part of the w:African Economic Community.
The East African Community is a potential precursor to the establishment of the w:East African Federation, a proposed w:federation of its five members into a single state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour and capital within the region, with the goal of a common currency by 2012 and full political federation in 2015.
The geographical region encompassed by the EAC covers an area of 1.8 million square kilometers, with a combined population of about 132 million (July 2009 est.)
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have had a history of co-operation dating back to the early 20th century. The customs union between Kenya and Uganda in 1917, which the then Tanganyika joined in 1927, was followed by the East African High Commission from 1948 to 1961, the East African Common Services Organization from 1961 to 1967, and then the 1967 to 1977 East African Community. w:Burundi and w:Rwanda joined the EAC on 6 July 2009.
Inter-territorial co-operation between the Kenya Colony, the Uganda Protectorate and the Tanganyika Territory was first formalized in 1948 by the East African High Commission. This provided a customs union, a common external tariff, currency and postage; and also dealt with common services in transport and communications, research and education. Following independence, these integrated activities were reconstituted and the High Commission was replaced by the East African Common Services Organisation, which many observers thought would lead to a political federation between the three territories. The new organisation ran into difficulties because of the lack of joint planning and fiscal policy, separate political policies and Kenya's dominant economic position. In 1967 the East African Common Services Organisation was superseded by the East African Community. This body aimed to strengthen the ties between the members through a common market, a common customs tariff and a range of public services so as to achieve balanced economic growth within the region.
In 1977, the East African Community collapsed after ten years. Causes for the collapse included demands by Kenya for more seats than Uganda and Tanzania in decision-making organs, disagreements with Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, and the disparate economic systems of socialism in Tanzania and capitalism in Kenya. The three member states lost over sixty years of co-operation and the benefits of economies of scale, though some Kenyan government officials celebrated the collapse with champagne. Each of the former member states had to embark, at great expense and at lower efficiency, upon the establishment of services and industries that had previously been provided at the Community level.
Later, Presidents Daniel arap Moi of Kenya, Ali Mwinyi of Tanzania, and Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda signed the Treaty for East African Co-operation in Arusha, Tanzania, on 30 November 1993, and established a Tri-partite Commission for Co-operation. A process of re-integration was embarked on involving tripartite programmes of co-operation in political, economic, social and cultural fields, research and technology, defense, security, legal and judicial affairs.
The East African Community was finally revived on November 30, 1999, when the Treaty for its re-establishment was signed. It came into force on July 7, 2000, twenty-three years after the total collapse of the defunct erstwhile Community and its organs. A customs union was signed in March 2004 which commenced on January 1, 2005; Kenya, the region's largest exporter, continued to pay duties on goods entering the other four countries on a declining scale until 2010. A common system of tariffs will apply to goods imported from third-party countries.
It is argued that key drivers for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are that Kenya wishes to export surplus capital, Uganda seeks an outlet for its surplus labour and Tanzania wants to realise a Pan-African vision. However, it is argued the commonalities go far deeper. Many of the national elites old enough to remember the former Community often share memories and a sharp sense of loss at its eventual dissolution. More cynically, others argue this historical ambition provides the potential for politicians to present themselves as statesmen of a higher order, as representatives of a greater regional interest. Furthermore, EAC institutions bring significant new powers to dispose and depose to those who serve in them.
Some question the extent to which the visions of a political union are shared outside the elite and the relatively elderly, further arguing the youthful mass of the population is not well informed about the process in any of the countries, while others point to an enhanced sense of East African identity developing from modern communications. Commitment to the formal EAC idea is relatively narrow, in both social and generational terms, and thus many question the timetable drawn up for the project. Fast-tracking political union was first discussed in 2004 and enjoyed a consensus on the subject among the three presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Thus, a high-level committee headed by Amos Wako of Kenya was commissioned to investigate the possibility of speeding up the process of integration so as to achieve political federation sooner than previously visualised. Yet there are concerns rapid changes would allow popular reactionary politics against the project. There is an argument however, that there are high costs that would be required at the beginning and that fast-tracking the project would allow the benefits to be seen earlier.
There remain significant political differences between the states. Museveni's success in obtaining his third-term amendment raised doubts in the other countries. The single-party dominance in the Tanzanian and Ugandan parliaments is unattractive to Kenyans, while Kenya's ethnic-politics is not apparent in Tanzania. Rwanda has a distinctive political culture with a political elite committed to building a developmental state, partly in order to safeguard the Tutsi group against a return to ethnic violence.
Other problems involve states being reluctant to relinquish involvement in other regional groups, e.g. Tanzania's withdrawal from COMESA but staying within the SADC bloc for the Economic Partnership Agreement negotiations with the European Union. Many Tanzanians are also concerned, because creating a common market means removing obstacles to the free movement of both labour and capital. Free movement of labour may be perceived as highly desirable in Uganda and Kenya, and have important developmental benefits in Tanzania, however in Tanzania there is widespread resistance to the idea of ceding land rights to foreigners, including citizens of Kenya and Uganda.
While generally the member nations are largely in favor of the East African Federation, informal polls indicate that most Tanzanians (80% of its population) have an unfavorable view. Tanzania has more land than all the other EAC nations combined, and some Tanzanians fear landgrabs by the current residents of the other EAC member nations. Land scarcity is a recurring issue in East Africa, particularly in Kenya, where clashes on the Kenyan side of Mount Elgon in 2007 left more than 150 dead and forced at least 60,000 away from their homes.
Tanzania supports the expansion of the East African Community. In 2010, Tanzanian officials expressed interest in inviting w:Malawi, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia to join the EAC, but Malawian Foreign Affairs Minister Etta Banda said there were no formal negotiations taking place concerning Malawian membership.
The presidents of Kenya and Rwanda invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan in 2011, and South Sudan was reportedly an applicant country as of mid-July 2011. As of early-October, South Sudan is said to officially become a member in the future. Analysts suggested that South Sudan's early efforts to integrate infrastructure, including rail links and oil pipelines, with systems in Kenya and Uganda indicated intention on the part of Juba to pivot away from dependence on w:Sudan and toward East Africa. w:Reuters considers South Sudan the likeliest candidate for EAC expansion in the short term, and an article in Tanzanian daily The CitizenTanzania that reported w:East African Legislative Assembly Speaker Abdirahin Haithar Abdi said South Sudan was "free to join the EAC" asserted that analysts believe the country will soon become a full member of the regional body. On 17 September, the w:Daily Nation quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would likely delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan imports. This was contradicted by President w:Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan had officially embarked on the application process one month later.
Sudan has applied to join the EAC, but its membership is strongly opposed by Tanzania and Uganda, which contend that due to Sudan's lack of a direct border with the EAC, its allegedly discriminatory actions toward black Africans, its record of human rights violations, and its history of hostilities with both Uganda and candidate country South Sudan, it is ineligible to join and its application should be thrown out.
Importance of the customs unionEdit
The key aspects of the customs union include:
- a Common External Tariff (CET) on imports from third countries;
- duty-free trade between the member states; and
- common customs procedures.
Different rates are applied for raw materials (0%), intermediate products (10%) and finished goods (25%), the latter percentage is fixed as the maximum. This represents a significance decrease from what was previously the maximum in Kenya (35%), Tanzania (40%) and Uganda (15%). However, this customs union is not yet fully implemented, because there is a significant list of exclusions to the Common External Tariff and tariff-free movement of goods and services. Technical work is also needed to harmonise and modernise the customs procedures in the EAC's major ports of entry.
The expected revenue benefits are understood to be minimal by many analysts, based on comparative-static simulation exercises demonstrating the one-off impacts of the immediate introduction of the CU's full tariff package. The findings suggest an increase in intra-regional trade that is largely the result of trade diversion, not trade creation, with some aggregate welfare benefits in Kenya and Tanzania but welfare losses in Uganda. From a trade-integration perspective, the EAC may not be the best chosen unit, because the current trade between the three countries is small compared to their external trade, and the EAC's 105 million citizens do not represent a large market in global terms, given the very low average incomes.
Emerging business trendsEdit
Business leaders are far more positive than economists about the benefits of EAC integration, its customs union as a step in the process, as well as the wider integration under COMESA. The larger economic players perceive long-term benefits in a progressively expanding regional market. Pattern of regional development are already emerging, including:
- Kenyan firms have successfully aligned to the lower protection afforded by the EAC CET and fears that firms would not adjust to a 25% maximum CET, or would relocate to Tanzania or Uganda have not been realised.
- An intraregional division of labour is developing that results in basic import-processing relocating to the coast to supply the hinterland. The final stages of import-processing (especially those bulky finished goods that involve high transportation costs) and natural-resource based activities, are moving up-country and up-region, either within value chains of large companies or different segments located by firms in different countries.
- Trade in goods and services has already increased as service provision to Kenyans and Tanzanians is already important for Uganda (in education and in health). Kenya exports financial services, for example via the Kenya Commercial Bank and purchase and upgrading of local operators in Tanzania, Uganda and Sudan. Uganda hopes integration will help support its tourism potential through integration with established regional circuits.
- There are signs a business culture oriented to making profits through economics of scale and not on protectionism.
East African economies have large informal sectors, un-integrated with the formal economy and large business. The concerns of large-scale manufacturing and agro-processing concerns are not broadly shared by the bulk of available labour. Research suggest the promised investments on the conditions of life of the region's overwhelmingly rural poor will be slight, with the significant exception of agro-industrial firms with out-grower schemes or that otherwise contribute to the coordination of smallholder production and trade.
It is informal trade across borders that is most often important to rural livelihoods and a customs union is unlikely to significantly impact the barriers that this faces and taxes are still being fixed separately by countries. However, the introduction of one-stop border posts being introduced and the reduction in tariff barriers are coming down progressively.
The establishment of a common market will create both winners (numerous food producers and consumers on both sides of all borders) and losers (smugglers and the customs, police and local government officers who currently benefit from bribery at and around the borders) in the border areas. More substantial impact could be attained by a new generation of investments in world-market production based on the region's comparative advantages in natural resources (especially mining and agriculture) and the new tariff structure creates marginally better conditions for world-market exporters, by cheapening inputs and by reducing upward pressures on the exchange rate.
[[File:East African Community heads of state.jpg|thumb|EAC heads in 2009. From left to right: w:Yoweri Museveni w:Uganda, w:Mwai Kibaki w:Kenya, w:Paul Kagame w:Rwanda, w:Jakaya Kikwete w:Tanzania, w:Pierre Nkurunziza w:Burundi. On 1 July 2010, Kenyan President w:Mwai Kibaki officially launched the East African Common Market Protocol, an expansion of the bloc's existing customs union that entered into effect in 2005. The protocol will lead to the free movement of labour, capital, goods and services within the EAC. Member states will have to change their national laws to allow the full implementation of some aspects of the Common Market such as immigration and customs. This legislation may take up to five years for each of the countries to enact fully but official recognition of the common market took place on 1 July. Kenya expects that its citizens will begin to enjoy freedom of movement in the EAC within two months. Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi have already agreed to waive work permit fees for EAC citizens. The Common Market is seen as a step towards implementation of the common currency by 2012 and full political federation in 2015. Kenyan businesses complain that the benefits of the Common Market only exist on paper by 2011, and that all the work remains to be done. Arbitrary rules and delays continue to make trade between Kenya and Tanzania expensive and difficult.
The free movement of people in the EAC is set to be improved with the introduction of "third generation" ID cards. These cards will identify the holder as a dual citizen of their home country and of "East Africa". Third generation cards are already in use in Rwanda with Kenya set to introduce them in July 2010 and the other countries following afterwards. Mutual recognition and accreditation of higher education institutions is also being worked towards as is the harmonisation of social security benefits across the EAC.
|Hotel type (no. of Stars)||Hotel Name||No. of Rooms (Single/Double) 1||No. of Beds||Hotel Price 2||pppp Night||No.to share||Distance from Venue||Link to Hotel's website|
|5*||The Palace Arusha Hotel||97||150||$95 to $200||$40||2||15 Minutes by car||http://www.palacehotelarusha.com|
|5*||Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge||350||700||$100 to $250||$30||3||1-3 minutes||http://www.thengurdotomountainlodge.com|
|5*||The Mount Meru Hote||170||250||$100 to $250||$40||2||15 minutes||http://www.mountmeruhotel.com|
|5*||The Arusha Hotel Lodge||97||180||$100 to $250||$40||2||15 minutes||http://www.thearushahotel.com|
|5*||Kibo Palace Lodge||77||130||$100 to $350||$40||2||15 minutes||http://www.kibopalacehotel.com|
|5*||The Naura Springs Hotel||128||190||$95 to $250||$40||2||15 Minutes by car||http://www.nauraspringshotel.com|
|Hotel type (no. of Stars)||Hotel Name||No. of Rooms (Single/Double) 1||No. of Beds||Hotel Price 2||pppp Night||No. to share||Distance from Venue||Link to Hotel's website|
|4*||East African Hotel||40||70||$95 to $200||$40||2||15 Minutes by car||http://www.eastafricanhotel.com|
|4*||Impala hotel||125||200||$95 to 220||$40||2||14 Minutes by car||http://www.impalahotel.com|
|4*||The Premier Palace Hotel||50||100||$85 to $100||$30||2||20 Minutes by car||http://www.premierpalace-hotel.com|
|4*||The Natron Palace Hotel||50||90||$50 to $75||$30||2||15 Minutes by car||http://www.natronpalacehotel.com|
|4*||Corridor Spring Hotel||60||100||$120 to $350||$40||2||20||http://www.corridorspringhotel.com|
|4*||Snow Crest Hotel||83||166||$180 to $350||$40||2||10||http://www.snowcresthotel.com|
The wikimani 2014 bid Team has chosen Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge in Arusha City to host the 10th wikimania 2014 Conference if the Jull's team decided and one of reason to choose the location is the only area where our guest can have an opportunity of discussions peacefully and comfortably. also our Conference location is center of the National Cultural heritage also has a Conference accommodating to 3000 to 7000 also has a ground flour for chartering Hall to serve the same number of attending in conference, is the area where participants can see the reasons of chooses Tanzania to be one of seven wonders in the world as Serengeti and Mount Kilimanjaro seen in the world. Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge is located in Usa River area and off Momella Road and about 7km South of the famous Arusha National Park gate. It is located midway between Arusha city center and Kilimanjaro International airport. The Tanzania Convention Center is easily accessible from all airports; about 30 minutes drive from Kilimanjaro International Airport and 40 minutes drive from Arusha Airport. There is a secure valet car park which can take up to 2000 Vehicles.
- Other rooms
Apart from public sessions, we also expect that many attending organizations, in particular local chapters, firms and the media, will be active throughout the duration of the conference. We will therefore reserve extra seminar in other rooms and reconfigure them as on-site workspace adapted to the needs of the attending organizations, such as conducting interviews, press activity, administrative work, and other backstage needs.
- Volunteers of the conference venue
The team is well-connected with the Tanzania Scout Association and during the discussion with the SCOUT COMMISSIONER he agreed to provide 200 Scout to serve to the Conference. The one coordinating the Wikimania Bid Team he currently working with the Scout Association in the previous election of Young African Sports Club for which they were did excellent for serving to a number of more than 3500 members attended that meeting. This idea is going to work for the first time before organizing tea was using University Students but the case is different in Arusha we want to students to concentrate on Wikimania scholarships for their future on the growing industry of Wikimedia
- Technical facilities
The main auditorium is equipped with a full-set of theater-standard conference equipment, including built-in cinematic projection and audition system, standard modern stage and lighting facilities. Seminar rooms are equipped with overhead and LED projectors with screens and audio system, making them ideal for presentations and discussions. Furthermore, the lecture theater are equipped with VHS and DVD players, and slide projector, in addition to the standard classroom facilities. Wired and wireless microphones are also provided on-site within the theaters. We believe that the flexibility and variety of available room sizes will meet the various desires of the presenters and attendees of each session. Although firm booking of the rooms for our proposed dates of Wikimania 2014 will only be available from January 2014 onward, once our bid is successful we will negotiate with the Makumira University management to make our bookings a to all students interested to the Wikimania 2014, and ensure that plenty of rooms will be available during the conference.
- Wireless network availability
The whole compound is covered by a built-in CYBER NET WI-Fi system which is operated by the biggest Internet in Arusha. We will seek for a sponsorship from local telecoms companies, to provide extra bandwidth and routers for parts the venue and accommodation where existing infrastructure is inadequate.
- Socializing areas
The Tanzania Convention Center has an open-air area outside of the Conference, with full green environment and we intend to configure this area into a combination of open-space seating, Cultural exhibition and related activities. The Tanzania Convention Center has an area of about 140 acres and can accommodate 20,000 visitors at a time,
- Distance to the Conference
From Kilimanjaro International Airport is about 24km to Ngurdoto and 45km to the City center, 35km to Moshi Town there wouldn't any arrangement of transport from Moshi to Ngordoto or Moshi to Arusha City center. The arrangement will be set on to all those participants get not a connection to Kilimanjaro would land to the Julius Nyerere International Airport at any time of the 2nd of August 2014
The Conference SpeakersEdit
The possibility of holding Wikimania conference in Arusha it simplifying the circumstances of getting keynote speakers and presenters that might already be in Arusha, and the neighbor cities, and other from African content willing to come to Arusha and from anywhere in the world. we also intend to invite Government Departments; academicians; major Media Groups; Politicians; Nongovernmental Organizations, IP consultants and Authors. A majority of Keynote Speakers from the East African Community, it's generally not very difficult for those who would be otherwise unable to clear their schedules for travel to stop by a local event to give an inspiring and motivating talk. The bid team plans to invite the guest of honor to be the Presidents of East African Community. we believe that the President of the United Republic of Tanzania His Excellence Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete shall be in position of inviting his Presidency mates to the conference to share experience with Wikimedians Community we also plan on the date of closing to Invite his Excellency John Drama Mahama President of Republic of Ghana for appreciations of the First President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah one of the hero's of Africa.
The Arusha bid team is organized by a grassroots efforts based in the Dar es Salaam and Arusha. The bid committee comprises of the most dedicated volunteers; committee members are assigned to handle specific duties related to the organization of the conference, with the coordinator ensuring that the bid moves forward in a timely manner. The committee features people of diversified backgrounds including lawyers, academicians, activists, consultants and well connected individuals.
The team is still welcoming more talented and curious individual to add their names in the list below and will be recruiting additional volunteers from time to time. For additional information you are urged to contact the coordinator at email@example.com.
|Name||Area of Responsibility||Professional Experience|
|Francis Kaswahili Kaguna||Coordinator||Intellectual Property Protection, Managing Director of East Africa Creative Rights Company, Founder of the then Tanzania Music Copyright Association,fomer Secretary General of Tanzania Musicians Association, Founder of Tanzania Music Federation OF Tanzania, Founder and Subscriber of Wikimedia Tanzania.|
|Nteghenjwa Hoseah||Information||Assistant committee member related to Wikimania 2014 Bids/Arusha Press|
|Salim Abubakar||Legal Officer||Preparing of legal documents such as Hotels for Accommodation Contracts, Sponsorships contracts, Transportation Contracts, Cultural program contracts, Fundraising propositions contracts, Procurement contracts and any procedure related to the Wikimania 2014 Arusha process|
|Ahmed Hassan||Information Technology||Web:Designer|
|Hamis Yowa||Journalist||Journalist and Graphics|
|Denis Mango||Cultural Programs||cultural and theater arts practitioner since 1990 to date,secretary general of national performing arts association since 2000 to date,founder and executive secretary of the national theater arts federation since 2010 to date,cultural festival organizer since 2000 to date,Theater arts training trainer and organizer,a dancer and choreographer,life skills and participatory theater for social development facilitator since 2000 to date.|
|Ephraim Kibonde||Sponsorship||Radio Presenter|
|Felix Daniel||Accommodation||Human and Resources Manager|
|Richard Mzilay||Cultural arrangements/Accommodation||Theater Arts practitioner|
|Faraja Roy||Accommodation||Marketing and Guest Relations Officer,|
|Regular Registrations||$33,000.00||700 people, $45 early, $55 late|
|Student & Wikimedian Registrations||$39,000.00||1200 people, $30 early, $45 late|
|Comped registration||$0||VIPs, scholarship recipients, and conference volunteers|
|Mwalimu Nyerere Sponsorship||$100,000.00||1 sponsor @ $100,000. Five VIP tickets, Naming rights to a lounge space, full-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo prominent on conference website, promotional items in attendee T-shirts, bags and caps, logo prominent on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessionsand titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the late first President of Republic of Tanganyika and United republic of Tanzania Mwalim Julius Nyerere created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Jomo Kenyata Sponsorship||$100,000.00||1 sponsor @ $100,000. Five VIP tickets, Naming rights to a lounge space, full-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo prominent on conference website, promotional items in attendee T-shirts, bags and caps, logo prominent on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the first President of Kenya late Jomo Kenyaqta created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Kwame Nkurumah Sponsorship||$100,000.00||1 sponsor @ $100,000. Five VIP tickets, Naming rights to a lounge space, full-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo prominent on conference website, promotional items in attendee T-shirts, bags and caps, logo prominent on slideshow prior to start of plenary session sand titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the first President of Ghana late Kwame Nkrumah created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Diamond Sponsorship||$150,000.00||3 sponsor @ $50,000. Nine VIP tickets, Naming rights to attendee party, 4 VIP tickets, full-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo prominent on conference website, promotional items in attendee bag, logo prominent on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificates and flamed photo of the Wikimania 2014 Arusha logo created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Gold Sponsorships||$160,000.00||4 sponsors @ $40,000. eight VIP tickets,Naming rights to a lunch break, 3 VIP tickets, half-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo prominent on conference website, promotional items in attendee bag, logo prominent on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the Wikimania 2014 Arusha created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Mount Kilimanjaro Sponsorships||$150,000.00||3 sponsors @ $30,000. Six VIP tickets, naming rights to a coffee break or breakfast, quarter-page ad in the program, exhibit table, name & logo on conference website, promotional items in attendee bag, logo on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the Mount Mount Kilimanjaro created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Uranium Sponsorships||$60,000.00||3 sponsors @ $20,000. Four VIP tickets, acknowledgement in the program, name & logo on conference website, name on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the Wikimania 2014 Arusha created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Tanzanite Sponsorships||$35,000.00||5 sponsors @ $7000. Two VIP tickets, acknowledgement in the program, name & logo on conference website, name on slideshow prior to start of plenary sessions and titled to receive certificate and flamed photo of the Wikimania 2014 Arusha created by Tanzanian artists.|
|Meals||$,000.00||Includes a light breakfast and lunch, as well as coffee breaks. We can adjust the meal budget depending on how sponsorships develop.
Here is a breakdown of the budgeted total and a minimal, "bare-bones" version:
Catering and related Budget min total
|Meeting space||$0||The $,000 fee for meeting space will be waived at $348,000 of catering expenditures/go through catering breakdown|
|Accommodations for VIPs||$,000.00||5 @ $000. For six days.|
|Travel for VIPs||$,000.00||VIPs accounted for in this line item are primarily Wikimedia Foundation Official, keynote speakers and community leaders|
|Ngorongoro Tour||$,000.00||This budget enabling participants to contribute only a $100 for the tour|
|Internal Transportation||$,000.00||120 Min buses with carrying capacity of 25 participants x $250 per day x 3000|
|Scholarships||$0||The scholarship budget is exclusive to the total budget of the Wikimania as traditionally, Wikimedia funding to that matter.|
|Participants Materials||$0||look on materials breakdown|
|Conference materials||$0||Hired by Green Environmental LTD.|
|Environmental recycling bins||$0|
|WikiExpedition||$,000.00||Scavenger hunt/photo contest|
|Volunteer appreciation||$,000.00||Comped registration and goodies for volunteering|
|Grand Total of Expenditures||$.00||The fundraising program has been completed by one of marketing company based in Dar es Salaam and will be announced soon as possible as jury's decision fevered Arusha as a hosting city. The target is raise about $0,000.00 which will be rechargeable easily.|
The highest sponsorship level will be Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere and next two level to Mwalimu Nyerere are Jomo Kenyatathe first President Republic of Kenya of Kenya and first President of republic of Ghana Dr. Kwame Nkrumah who was the best friend of our father of the National of the former Republic of Tanganyika and then United republic of Tanzania. due to the historical event of Wikimania if Arusha Chosen these historical Leaders dedicated this men of Africa together leaded Africans for liberation's of the some countries in the continent, other level are Diamond available in our land, Gold as the sign mining available in the country, Mount Kilimanjaro which is the pride of Africa and one of seventh wonders , uranium also available in our land and Tanzanite this mine available only in Tanzania no more
|Name of Supporter||Responsibility||Experience||Website|
|Tanzania Brewaries Limited||Conference Support||The TBL through Kilimanjaro Premiurm Lager will support the Wikimania 2014 conference in Arusha.||Kilimanjaro Premium lager|
|Ministry of National Resources and Tourism||Conference Support||The Ministry will support the Wikimania 2014 conference in arusha through Directorates of Tanzania Natinal Parks and the Tanzania Tourism board||Ministry of National Resources and Tourism|
|Tanzania Investment Centre||Conference Support||Supporting several Conferences, Seminar,Symposiums and workshops around the country as the part of the government TIC has decided to support the Wikimania 2014 in Arusha City if the Jury's committee appoint arusha to host the Confeence||Tanzania Investment center|
|Shades of Green Safaris||Conference Support||has been handled and supporting several Congerences in Arusha eg: AGRF heled in Arusha on Sep 2012 with a total number of 1200 deligates . In Jan 2013 we as well handled Globle Martenal Conference MDH with a total of 450 Deligates , we are as well expecting to handle Africa Microfinance conference in Dec 2013||Shades of Green Safaris|
|The Impala Group of Hotels||Conference Support||The Board of Management of IGH under it's Hotels of Impala Hotel,Naura Springs Hotel and Ngurdoto mountain Lodge will support the Wikimania 2014 in arusha through||The Impala group of Hotels|
|The Palace Hotel Arusha||Conference Support||The Management of Palace Hotel Arusha will support the wikimania 2014 Conference in arusha||Palace Hotel Arusha|
The Government of TanzaniaEdit
We expect Support from our Government to make sure that Tanzania is the always one and others to follow, this meantTanzania, the African mother Land and immigrated of homeless, don't write a paper with your mate while the ink tank is fully and remember that we are not saying this from no where. come and
|Presidents office'||Conference Support|
|Ministry of foreign affairs and International cooperation||Visa of Entering the Country|
|The African Peer Review Mechanism||Good Governance|
|Tanzania Regulatory Authority||Network Support|
|Ministry of National Resources and Tourism||Tourism Guide|
|Ministry of Information, Culture,Youth and Sports||Cultural in general|
|Tanzania National Museum||Museums|
|Tanzania National library||Librarians|
|Tanzania National Parks||National Parks guide|
|Tanzania Investment center||Investment approach|
|Tanzania Tourist Board||Tourism Promotion|
|Name||Type||Language||Level of Wikipedia-issues Coverage||Website|
|Tanzania Broadcasting C operation - tbc||TV/Radio||Swahili||very good|||
|Independed Televission – ITV||TV||Swahili||Very good|||
|East African Televission - EATV||TV||Swahili||Very Good||[http://www.eatv.co.tz|
|Channel 4||TV||Swahili/English||Very good|
|Star Televission - Star TV||TV||Swahili||Very good||[http://www.Startv.com Tz|
|Clouds TV||TV||Swahili||Very Good||[http://www.cloudsfm.co.tz|
|Mlimani City Televission||TV||Swahili||Very Good||[http:www.mlimanitv.com|
|TV Tumaini||TV||Swahili||Very Good||www.tvtumaini|
|Radio one||Radio||Swahili||very good||www.radioone.com|
|Mwanchi||Newspaper||Swahili||very good||www.mwanchi .com|
|the guardian||Newspaper||English||Very Good||www.theguardian.com|
|the citizen||Newspaper||English||Very Good||www.thecitizen|
|The Daily News||Newspaper||English||Very Good||[http://www.dailynews.co.tz|
|Tanzania Daima||Newspaper||Swahili||Very Good||www.tanzaniadaima.com|
|Arusha Municipal Council||Supporting of the Event|
|Arumeru District Council||Hosting District of the Wikimania Conference if Arusha win the Bid|
Traveling to ArushaEdit
- Getting Arusha
Tanzania has two major International Airports of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere (Dar es Salaam)and Kilimanjaro international Airport, (Kilimanjaro) there is a distance of kilometer from Dar ES salaam to Kilimanjaro either the Kilimanjaro International airport serving to northern Tanzania Regions of Kilimanjaro and Arusha. Main Airlines are designating to Dar es Salaam to compare with Kilimanjaro but the most of airlines has an contractual agreement of connections to Kilimanjaro International airport. it's advisable to all participants failed to get a connection to Kilimanjaro from their main destination to inform the organizing team about it and being advised to arrival in Dar Es Salaam at any time of the 2nd of August 2014 where they will be accommodated by the organizers, early in the morning of 3rd of August 2014 there will be buses from Dar Es salaam to Arusha around 07:00hrs from the Hotels. Also the organizing team will arrange a number of buses from Kilimanjaro International airport to Arusha city Centre. All participants can be connected with the following airlines allover the world.
RwandAir Boeing 737-55D 7Q-YKW in the old livery
The Citizens of the following countries do not need a visa in order to enter Tanzania, every person planing to enter in Tanzania supposed to have a valid traveling documents to prove his/her citizenship within the Tanzanian borders or at any airport, also all citizens of countries that are members of the commonwealth are visa free unless otherwise diplomatic problems regarding to immigrants cause in any case of difficulty don't hesitate to contact the Tanzanian Embassy or the consulate in your country or the Immigration Commissioner: http://www.tanzania.go.tz/visa.html Citizens of the following countries have visa-free access to Arusha as stated above:
Need a VisaEdit
Citizens of the following countries are required to get a visa in one of Tanzania's consulates around the world. Visa issuing costs of Tshs.. or US$..
- Burma (Myanmar)
- China (People's Rep. of)
- Rep. of China (Taiwan)
- Korea, North
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
While in the Land of Kilimanjaro you'll be interested to visit of our National parks like with historical based on fossil evidence found at the Olduvai Gorge, various Chominl species have occupied the area for 3 million years.
Hunter-gatherers were replaced by pastoralists a few thousand years ago. The Mbulu came to the area about 2,000 years ago and were joined by the Datooga around the year 1700 Both groups were driven from the area by the Masai in the 1800s.
Massive fig trees in the northwest of the Lerai Forest are sacred to the Masai and the Datooga. Some of them may have been planted on the grave of a Datago leader who died in battle with the Masai around 1840.
No Europeans are known to have set foot in the Ngorongoro Crater until 1892, when it was visited by Oscar Baumann. Two German brothers farmed in the crater until the outbreak of World War I, after leasing the land from the administration of w:German East Africa. The brothers regularly organized shooting parties to entertain their German friends. They also attempted to drive the wildebeest herds out of the crater.
The Ngorongoro area originally was part of the Serengeti National Park when it was created by the British in 1951. Masai continued to live in the newly created park until 1959, when repeated conflicts with park authorities over land use led the British to evict them to the newly declared Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA).
Land in the conservation area is multi-use and unique because it is the only conservation area in Tanzania that protects wildlife while allowing human habitation. Land use is controlled to prevent negative effects on the wildlife population. For example, cultivation is prohibited at all but subsistence levels.
The area is part of the Serengeti ecosystem and, to the northwest, adjoins the Serengeti National Park and is contiguous with the southern Serengeti plains. These plains also extend to the north into unprotected Loliondo division and are kept open to wildlife through transhumance pastoralism practiced by the Masai. The south and west of the area are volcanic highlands, including the famous Ngorongoro Crater and the lesser known Empakaa Crateri. The southern and eastern boundaries are approximately defined by the rim of the East African Rift wall, which also prevents animal migration in these directions.
The annual ungulate migration passes through the NCA, with wildebeest and zebra moving south into the area in December and moving north in June. This movement changes seasonally with the rains, but the migration will traverse almost the entire plains in search of food. The NCA has a healthy resident population of most species of wildlife: in particular, the Ndutu Lake area to the west has strong cheetah and lion populations.
A population of approximately 25,000 large animals, largely ungulates along with reputedly the highest density of mammalian predators in Africa, lives in the Ngorongoro Crater. Large animals in the crater include the black rhinoceros, the local population of which declined from about 108 in 1964-66 to between 11-14 in 1995, and the hippopotamus, which is very uncommon in the area. There also are many other ungulates: the wildebeest (7,000 estimated in 1994), the zebra (4,000), the Common Eland, and Grant's and Thompson's gazelles (3,000).
The crater has one of the densest known population of lions, numbering 62 in 2001. On the crater rim are leopards, elephants – numbering 42 in 1987 but only 29 in 1992 – mountain reedbuck, and Cape buffalo (4,000 in 1994). A large lake in the middle of the crater is inhabited by hundreds of flamingoes, and from a distance, they appear as a pink border of the lake.
Since the 1980s, the crater's wildebeest population has fallen by a quarter to about 19,000 and the numbers of eland and Thomson's gazelle also have declined while the buffalo population has increased greatly, probably due to the long prevention of fire which favors high-fibrous grasses over shorter, less fibrous types.
In summer, enormous numbers of Serengeti migrants pass through the plains of the reserve, including 1.7 million wildebeest, 260,000 zebra, and 470,000 gazelles. Waterbuck occur mainly near Lerai Forest; servals occur widely in the crater and on the plains to the west. Common in the reserve are lions, hartebeest, spotted hyenas, and jackals. Cheetahs, although common in the reserve, are scarce in the crater itself. The African Wild Dog has recently[when?] disappeared from the crater and may have declined elsewhere in the NCA.
The main feature of the NCA is the Ngorongoro Crater, a large, unbroken, unfolded volcanic caldera. The crater, which formed when a giant volcano exploded and collapsed on itself some two to three million years ago, is Template:Convert deep and its floor covers Template:Convert. Estimates of the height of the original volcano range from fifteen to nineteen thousand feet (4500 to 5800 metres) high.
Although thought of as "a natural enclosure" for a very wide variety of wildlife, up to 20 percent or more of the wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and half the zebra (Equus burchelli) populations vacate the Crater in the wet season. However, a side effect of this enclosure is that the population of Ngorongoro lions is significantly inbred, with many genetic problems passed from generation to generation. This is due to the very small amount of new bloodlines that enter the local gene pool, as very few migrating male lions enter the crater from the outside. Those who do enter the crater are often prevented from contributing to the gene pool by the crater's male lions, who, because of their large size (the result of an abundant and constant food source), easily expel any outside competitors.
Animal populations in the crater include most of the species found in East Africa, but there are no impalas (Aepyceros melampus), topis (Damaliscus lunatus), oribis (Ourebia oribi), giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), or crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).
The crater highlands on the side facing the easterly trade winds receives 800–1200 mm of rain a year and is covered largely in montane forest, while the less-steep west wall receives only 400–600 mm; this side is grassland and bushland dotted with Euphorbia bussei trees. The crater floor is mostly open grassland with two small wooded areas dominated by Acacia xanthophloea.
The Munge Stream drains Olmoti Crater to the north, and is the main water source draining into the seasonal salt lake in the center of the crater. This lake is known by two names: Makat as the Maasai called it, meaning salt; and Magadi. The Lerai Stream drains the humid forests to the south of the Crater, and it feeds the Lerai Forest on the crater floor - when there is enough rain, the Lerai drains into Lake Magadi as well. Extraction of water by lodges and NCA headquarters reduces the amount of water entering Lerai by around 25%.
The other major water source in the crater is the Ngoitokitok Spring, near the eastern crater wall. There is a picnic site here open to tourists and a huge swamp fed by the spring, and the area is inhabited by hippopotamus, elephants, lions, and many others. Many other small springs can be found around the crater's floor, and these are important water supplies for the animals and local Masaai, especially during times of drought.
Aside from herds of zebra, zebra, and wildebeest, the crater is home to the "big five Game" of rhinoceros, lion, leopard, elephant, and African buffalo. The crater plays host to almost every individual species of wildlife in East Africa, with an estimated 25 000 animals within the crater.
Following the recommendations of the ad hoc committee of scientists convened after the 2000 drought, an ecological burning program was implemented in the crater, which entails annual or biannual controlled burns of up to 20 percent of the grasslands. Maasai are now permitted to graze their cattle within the crater, but must enter and exit daily.
Lion population fluctuationsEdit
Drought in 1961 and rains throughout the 1962 dry season caused a massive build-up of Stomoxys calcitrans biting flies by May 1962. They drained blood and caused painful skin sores that became infected, causing lion numbers to crash for several years. It was estimated that Ngorongoro's population of at least seventy lions had been reduced to about ten. Drought in 2000 and rain throughout the 2001 dry season caused another plague of the flies, with similar results.
Additionally, lion numbers declined over a decade from 80 to approximately 30 in 1997 and 2003.
The conservation area also protects Olduvai Gorge, situated in the plains area. It is considered to be the seat of humanity after the discovery of the earliest known specimens of the human genus, Homo habilis as well as early hominidae, such as Paranthropus boisei.
The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley, which stretches along eastern Africa. Olduvai is in the eastern Serengeti Plains in northern Tanzania and is about 30 miles long. It lies in the rain shadow of the Ngorongoro highlands and is the driest part of the region. The gorge is named after 'Oldupaai', the Maasai word for the wild sisal plant, Sansevieria ehrenbergii.
It is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the world and research there has been instrumental in furthering understanding of early human evolution. Excavation work there was pioneered by MaryLeakey and Louis Leakey in the 1950's and is continued today by their family. Some believe that millions of years ago, the site was that of a large lake, the shores of which were covered with successive deposits of volcanic ash. Around 500,000 years ago seismic activity diverted a nearby stream which began to cut down into the sediments, revealing seven main layers in the walls of the gorge.
Non-WIKI Related Reasons to meet in Arusha CityEdit
We need education on implementing the Wikimedia Projects as a basic foundation, if all Africans have a foundation this means the World have a foundation, it's now a time to express our visions to Wikimedia because we need it to be active in our continent, that's why we engaged on it, every body has seen other contestants withdrawing their bids, it's very important to think not only to guess without founding reason. This is the burden of Wikimedia Foundation to expand it's project or to demoralize it self, it's also to find reasons of up and down to participants as explained here below it will support and helps this free opportunity of education access, which is in line with the message of wiki projects. Symbolically, hosting Wikimania 2014 in Arusha,Tanzania regardless of experience or inexperienced hooping the Jury's would help to show the reality that Wikipedia stands for all in pursuing of knowledge and making a move together.
- Why this table below
With experience we have, if Arusha get this opportunity for sure Wikimedia Foundation will be anxious to meet in Africa hopefully the next bid race will be very turf. Also this will change a mentality that Wikimedia projects was set to every body regardless color, tribalism or religions and attending capacity will up forever
|Conference||Date||Place||Continent||Attendance||Archive of presentations|
|Wikimania 2005||August 5–7||Frankfurt, Germany||380||slides, video|
|Wikimania 2006||August 4–6||Cambridge, United States||400||slides and papers, video|
|Wikimania 2007||August 3–4||Taipei, Taiwan, China||440||Commons gallery|
|Wikimania 2008||July 17–19||Alexandria, Egypt||650||abstracts, slides,video|
|Wikimania 2009||August 26–28||Buenos Aires,Argentina||559||slides, video|
|Wikimania 2010||July 9–11||Gdańsk, Poland*||500||slides|
|Wikimania 2011||August 4–7||Haifa, Israel||720||presentations, video|
|Wikimania 2012||July 12–15||Washington, D.C.,United States||1,400||presentations, videos|
|Wikimania 2013||August 7–11||Hong Kong, China|China||N/A|
Through this page We humbly open the curtain of support to all International Wiki Community as a parts of world to express their support to Wikimania 2015 Bids Arusha, please come together with us, come together with Arusha, come together with East Africa Community, come together with Sub Saharan Africa for gathering our brothers and sisters from all the part of the world in the land of Mount Kilimanjaro, Ngorongoro and Serengeti National park if Arusha win the Bid :
please sign your name by adding " # your Location: your words of support or/and area can help --~~~ " below
It is our humble to welcome all those local Wiki community to express their support to our bid, and show their willingness at all the time of bidding and implementation of their responsibility if Arusha chosen:
please sign your name by adding " #' your words of support or/and area can help --~~~ " below
The Conference StructureEdit
- Arusha is a city where all the business of the East African Community is based, all the people from the country members are welcome to visit without threat or worry about the possibility of 'issues' with the local population, Immigration officers, police, Militias, Defense forces or security Company services. Arusha is the most cosmopolitan city in the world with every nationality, culture and language represented in our schools and everyday lives,
- Arusha is the cultural City and tourism from all over the world through the Kilimanjaro international airport which is 30 kilometers from the Arusha City Centre, also there is Arusha airport used by tourist , the proposed Wikimania venue is one the coolest in the world and many International events are now held even a number of Presidents are accommodated there . And that multiplicity of travel routes to Arusha VIA Dar es Salaam usually means cheaper prices from the competition, indeed our checking of flight prices has shown we are the cheapest destination from just about everywhere.
- Arusha itself has excellent local transport connections to the Conference venue by road and there is a number business men run a free drive cars where you can hire for your visit in the conference and the venue can be reached in half and hour from Kilimanjaro international Airport airports.
- Coming to Wikimania is not just about sharing our thoughts and ideas about Wikimedia, Wikinews, Wikisource, Wiktionary and the other projects in every language, but also to meet other editors socially and to have a brief visit to a new place at the same time. Wikimania Arusha 2014 will not only provide facilities 'on campus' throughout the conference for these to happen but will also encourage visitors to take in the sights, the history of our National resources, fine arts ans many more about culture of Arusha and the nightlife
- The Wikimania 2015 if Arusha Chosen it bring together a number of students from our African Universities to learn more about Wikimedia Projects and then to get a number of African Editors insisted of the situation as its
Weaknesses of the proposed locationEdit
- ...and how to overcome those weaknesses
- Expense - Arusha can be an expensive city on transport to all participants who will decided to book in the hotels out of located by the organizers, with all those intending to visit our national parks.
- Proposed solution - Attempt to have whatever we can subsidized by our sponsors, all Hotels located by the organizers there will have special buses from the hotels to and from the conference venue .
- ’’’Accommodation’’’ To be sure of the secure of our participants all the hotels selected to accommodate the Wikimania participants will issue two guide to every hotel selected.
- Food Around the Ngurdoto Mountain lodge there are a mixture of expensive and cheap eating places and a wide range of cuisine at competitive prices we mean to compare with other cities of Tanzania but normally dinner plays to $1 up to $10. We will issue attendees with a guide (in collaboration with Travelwiki?).
- Museums and galleries and monuments State and municipal Museums and galleries are mostly charging very small amount and for privately run commercial attractions, We should be able to get complimentary for these to give to attendees.
- Wikimania is as big as we dare make it. We have enough media contacts and PR resources that we could publicize this extremely well, especially within e.g. the tech community. As long as we are clear what we aim to get out of the coverage surrounding the conference, there's no reason why we shouldn't be able to achieve those goals.
- Give attendees the option, when registering online, to book on the hotels selected by the organizers for security purposes as we intend to host the historical Conference since the beginning of the Wikimania in 2005
Gallery of photosEdit
Safari vehicles in the Ngorongoro crater
Female lions on the hunt in Ngorongoro Crater
- Philip Briggs, Northern Tanzania : The Bradt Safari Guide with Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar, second edition (2009).
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- Visa arrangements should start long time in advance. Organizers will provide assistance if required.
- "Mbulu", Information about northern Tanzania: a personal scrapbook of "cuttings" from published sources
- Northern Tanzania: The Bradt Safari Guide with Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar, authored by Phillip Briggs, 2006, pages 197, 198 ISBN 1-84162-146-3
- Excerpt from Ngorongoro Conservation Area, authored by Jeannette Hanby & David Bygott, Information about northern Tanzania: a personal scrapbook of "cuttings" from published sources
- Africa's Great Rift Valley, authored by Nigel Pavitt, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 2001, pages 135-139, ISBN 0-8109-0602-3
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- Africa's Great Rift Valley. Nigel Pavitt. 2001. page 135. Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated, New York ISBN 0-8109-0602-3
- Northern Tanzania with Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar. Phillip Briggs. 2006. page 197. ISBN 1-84162-146-3
- "Downward trends in Ngorongoro Crater ungulate populations 1986–2005: Conservation concerns and the need for ecological research", Biological Conservation, authored by R. D. Estesa, J. L. Atwood, and A. B. Estes, 2006, page 107
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- "Management of Black Rhino in the Ngorongoro Crater" (PDF). African Wildlife Foundation. 2003-09-04. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "Downward trends in Ngorongoro Crater ungulate populations 1986–2005: Conservation concerns and the need for ecological research", Biological Conservation, authored by R. D. Estesa, J. L. Atwood, and A. B. Estes, 2006, pages 116-7
- "Stomoxys", Information about northern Tanzania: a personal scrapbook of "cuttings" from published sources]
- "Downward trends in Ngorongoro Crater ungulate populations 1986–2005: Conservation concerns and the need for ecological research", Biological Conservation, authored by R. D. Estesa, J. L. Atwood, and A. B. Estes, 2006, page 108
- Africa's Great Rift Valley. Nigel Pavitt. 2001. pages 138. Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated, New York ISBN 0-8109-0602-3