Research:Understanding Web Content Monetization in the Ho and Santali Languages

13:52, 19 June 2021 (UTC)
Duration:  2021-June – 2022-March
Ho, Santali, Adivasi, Indigenous, India, Media

This page is an incomplete draft of a research project.
Information is incomplete and is likely to change substantially before the project starts.

Low-resource languages including a vast majority of indigenous and different endangered languages face the risk of low content creation and low readership. Most low-resource languages do not experience a content demand surge nor a faster growth in the content producers. We consider the socioeconomic, policy-level and technical factors affect being directly responsible for the reduced level of readership/viewership and content creation, and suggest that citizen web content and the monetization of the same, Openness and peer-to-peer community support would be key to overall media engagement through research in two indigenous languages from India -- Ho and Santali.


We aim to conduct both empirical and theoretical studies to explore the web-based citizen media in two Adivasi (indigenous) languages of India -- Ho and Santali -- to identify and map the socioeconomic and technical challenges. We would develop a set of hypothesis and check them against a collective analysis of the public data both from Wikipedia and Wikimedia projects, and other online content platforms. This work would help in synthesizing the studies into creating emerging trends, searched topics and other insights that are relevant to web media content. We would conduct interviews with native speakers including Wikimedians to annotate the insights with ethnographic, cultural and technical nuances which will help develop frameworks and conceptual models for integrating web monetization for multimedia content platforms, especially using Creative Commons.


Less than 7% of the 7,000 world languages are captured in publications, and much less as digital content (DTIL 2019, WhoseKnowledge?). More than 80% of the web content is in the 10 most spoken languages. This digital divide has led to a skewed access to the world’s knowledge and low participation for knowledge exchange, especially for the majority of the languages as they are oral (and not written). Only 22 of India's 780 languages are officially recognized. The rest of the languages, many indigenous and otherwise with poor access to resources, are still used as first languages by communities that have extremely low access and participation in the knowledge commons. Lack of research and funding both for the development of citizen media and technology add to the lack of government support for such languages. There is also less awareness about the potential of Openness -- Creative Commons licenses, open-source tools and open standards such as Web Monetization and Interledger Protocol -- for monetizing meaningful community media and supporting content producers. The Adivasi languages that are spoken more than 107 million people primarily in India and across South Asia have been in the lowest economic strata historically. Affordability of education and the internet remain a constant challenge for most Adivasi communities.


Please provide in this section a short timeline with the main milestones and deliverables (if any) for this project.

Phase 1Edit

Outline of planned deliverables
Duration Work details Status / To be done
June - Nov 2021 Project initiation Done
Hypotheses creation Done
Recruitment of language interns/research associates Done
Initiation of workflow and overall project structure Done
Aug - December 2021 Initiation of demographic study of Adivasi languages (focus languages: Ho and Santali) Done
Initial research of web content landscape Done
Identification of indicators Moved to Jan/Feb '22
Survey form prototype and localization Moved to Jan '22
Demo-day Moved to Feb '22
August 2021 Development of frameworks TBD Feb '22
Demographic study of Adivasi languages (focus languages: Ho and Santali) TBD Jan - Feb '22
Research the web content landscape TBD Feb '22
September 2021 Publication of mid-term report along with research outcomes (data, code, prototypes) Postponed to mid January 2022
Outline of planned deliverables
Duration Work details Status
October and November 2021 Further research (focus: scope of web monetization in Adivasi languages, particularly, Ho and Santali; consideration: digital accessibility and access to information by illiterate individuals) TBD Jan - Feb '22
Pilot study that makes use of Web Monetization using open practices TBD Jan - Feb '22
December 2021 Finalization of research report draft Feb - Mar '22
Submission of report draft for peer-review Feb - Mar '22
Publication of final research outcomes Post Mar '22


The key hypotheses that we started the project with:


  1. The Adivasi peoples in India by and large have the lowest access to financial, governance, institutional, linguistic and technical support for using their language for knowledge exchange.
  2. The long-lasting poverty of Adivasis has percolated into a no/low access to education in native languages, and significantly restricted access to education in dominant languages.
  3. Development of native writing systems are believed to be a uniting factor for native speaker diaspora that are dispersed geographically.
  4. There is a growing trend for independence—from social oppression by neighboring dominant communities—among many Adivasi peoples.
  5. Volunteer-led contribution for building technical tools, creating content and building capacity has seen only a handful contributors which has led to their burnout.


  1. Most Adivasi people have a significantly lower and inequitable access to education and economic opportunities. Societal oppression have led to much lower access for Adivasi women, including lack of elementary education for Adivasi girl children.
  2. Poor public policy, lack of adequate number of educators and infrastructure in education system have resulted in a lower percentage of literacy among Adivasi people in native languages. Children are imposed to learn dominant and official languages only.
  3. Even though education programs and state reservations in the public job sector has contributed towards some Adivasi individuals receiving higher education, there is no structured system for individuals in different job sectors to contribute toward supporting the larger economic state of their own communities.


  1. The reservation in India for public jobs are squeezed for Adivasi individuals because of systemic corruption by public authorities and exploitation of provisions of reservation by non-Adivasi and caste-dominant groups.
  2. Adivasis whose work rights are violated do not have access to a fair justice system and hence they are often exploited at workplaces.


  1. Disagreements among scholars on linguistic factors—such as the the preference of one writing system over the other for Adivasi languages—have been detrimental for the content growth. Similar linguistic conflicts and the resulting hate posts on the internet have acted against emerging content creators.
  2. Official publications promoting non-native writing systems have dissuaded widespread use of native writing systems. Examples include many public sites in India promoting Devanagari over Ol Chiki (native writing system for Santali) and Warang Citi (native writing system for Ho).
  3. Multiple writing systems being used for the same language beyond official use has an adverse impact on the language.


  1. There has been widespread technical exclusion of Ho, Santali and many other Adivasi languages by big tech companies which have created technical barriers for content creators without any clarity on rationale.
  2. Santali language script was introduced in 2008 in Unicode version 5.1. Even after 12 years, still Santali language is not available as an option to switch on in the major websites and apps like Google, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc. or added as a language option. Ex. Santali language was added as an option on request on before that people were not able to give contribution in Santali language.
  3. Low online content sharing also yields in availability of critical information in many Adivasi languages.
  4. Various tech companies support one primary script for their business, like Facebook, YouTube where content advertising is only allowed in only one script, in some cases they allow but they prefer more to stick with one script.
  5. Entertainment-related content being mostly multimedia, searchability and discoverability of such content is lower as opposed to textual content.

Affordability and accessEdit

  1. Affordability is also aggravating a demand-supply issue in the context of subscription-based models such as dissemination of news and other content through subscriptions, video on demand and pay-per-click web content.
  2. As entertainment content is extremely popular as opposed to content providing critical and comprehensive knowledge, content producers also prioritize entertainment content over other areas.
  3. While creation of multimedia content can be extremely accessible for speakers of many oral languages and/or people with illiteracy and disability, the production cost for such content is extremely high. Content producers are not able to find viable sources of income to afford the knowhow and time to create high-quality content.
  4. The overall content depth and diversity are lower because of lower participation.
  5. Lack of access to the internet plays a snowball effect as having free access to content in some of the languages also do not help grow the audience. Many potential viewers do not have access to the internet. Such a situation also motivate the content producers for promotion or plan for paid content. There is low competition among producers and there is much lower remuneration for them.

Policy, Ethics and Human Subjects ResearchEdit

The overall research will rely on public data including a large amount of open data. A part of the research would require personal interviews and collection of minimal personal data. While we would use the ethical practices, guidelines and consent/content-release templates listed in OpenSpeaks for all non-public interviews, we would be mindful of not disrupting the volunteer time Wikimedians contribute in their respective wikis.



The Ho and Santal peoples are two neighboring indigenous (Adivasi) groups from eastern India, with a total population of 9.2 million[1] (1.6 million Ho and 7.6 million Santal) who live primarily in India along with Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan among other regions. The Santal people are one the largest Adivasi communities in India and Bangladesh.[2] Santal villages generally elect the Majhi Hadam, village chief and priest, who oversees the internal community matters. Such a village-level administration is quite common in the Santal-majority villages.[3] The Ho village equivalent of Majhi Hadam is Manki Munda. Ho and Santali are the native languages respectively of Santal and Ho peoples whereas Warang Citi and Ol Chiki are the native writing systems. Santali is one of the 22 official languages as defined in the Eight Schedule of the Indian Constitution[4] whereas Ho is one of the 38 languages that are still being considered since 2017 to be added.[5]

Informational and other content dissemination through digital and other multimedia are extremely squeezed. If the feature film production is considered, only one in Ho and four in Santali films received certification from the Indian government between April to March 2015 for commercial screening.[6] At the time of reporting, there were only seven Santali films[7] (including only one feature film[8]) listed on the Internet Movie Database (IDMb) whereas IMDb did not support Ho to be included in metadata as the primary language of production in metadata.[9] Such dearth of platform-level features raises the question of exclusion of marginalized peoples through the use of technology.

Exclusion by technologyEdit

Systemic exclusion of indigenous and other marginalized groups through technology is documented widely where big tech companies have played a key role, among others, in furthering such exclusions through their strong influence on the use of technology.[10] For instance, targeted ads in Ho and Santali languages cannot be placed in the respective native writing systems using Google Ads as the platform supports only a limited number of languages. The support page clearly states, "Creating an ad in a language that is not supported will cause it to be disapproved due to an unsupported language."[11] Targeted ads are delivered to users based on their browser settings, geolocation and other relevant factors. Content creators who cannot avail such a service tend to use a fallback language that is supported by the platform. There is thus a mismatch between the language of the content and the language of the ads. Beyond anecdotal evidences that we have gathered through interaction with Ho and Santali content creators, the deeper economic impact of lack of features need further study. Language support (or the lack of it) for devices is another known exclusions which has a wider repercussion. For instance, Warang Chiti as a writing system was not supported, despite the availability of Google's own Noto font that supports Warang Citi, for the Android devices until the release of the version 11 of Android operating system in September 2020.[12] As the majority of the native Ho speakers use mobile devices, as opposed to desktop computers and laptops, and Android is the preferred operating system, users who have older devices that cannot upgrade to Android 11 are unable to read/input text in Warang Citi.

Writing in SantaliEdit

Until the development of a writing system of its own, the Santali language used to be written in a range of writing systems. Santali has been historically written in Kaithi in North Bihar, Bengali in South Bihar (now Jharkhand) and to some extent in northern Orissa (currently Odisha) and West Bengal, Devanagari in the central Bihar region, Oriya (currently Odia) in Orissa (currently Odisha), and Roman script primarily during the British rule.

Other writing systems were also proposed for writing Santali. "Menz Dader Ank" by Ramchand Murmu, "Hod Okhor Gentez" by Manohar Hansdah, "Santali Adang Tonol Jo" by Shayamapad Majhi, "Khodlipi" by Anil Hembram and "Sindhughati" by Nirmal Kumar Verma were some of the proposed writing systems that eventually failed to gather consensus. In 1925, Santali educator Raghunath Murmu created the Ol Chiki script. (Hembram 2002) It paved the way for documenting knowledge in a native script. Guru Gomke was a scholar in Santali language and culture, and took into account the phonetics—that are unique to the language—while designing the script. Ol Chiki garnered the support of the Santals across several Indian states by the Santali diaspora, Santal political leaders contributed for the recognition of both the language and the script. However, some resistance persists in accepting the use of Ol Chiki widely.  Choksi argues that religion was used for propagating the script. (Choksi – “From Transcript to“Trans-Script”: Romanized Santali across Semiotic Media”) The Sahitya Akademi, an Indian government entity that promotes Indian-language literature, recognizes only Ol Chiki for published literary works in Santali.

Development of digital typefacesEdit

Early development of Ol Chiki typefaces for typing in Santali were primarily community led. Among others, the We Santhals ( community collective has published typefaces such as "Ol Ciki Raj" (v1.01 released on 30 June 2003; v1.02 updated on 8 March 2005), "Ol Chiki Usara" or "olciki_usoro" (released on 30 June 2003), and the "Ol Chiki" font family by N.  C. Murmu (included files are "Ol_Chiki_Classic.ttf", "Ol_Chiki_Old.ttf", "Ol_Chiki_Optimum.ttf", "Ol_Chiki_Regular.ttf", "Ol_Chiki_Royal.ttf" and "olchiki_usara.ttf").[13] These typefaces used mostly a modified American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), a character encoding that was popular before the Unicode standard was accepted for most writing systems. The Unicode Standard in its version 5.1 that was released in April, 2008, included Ol Chiki with the 48 code points ranging from U+1C50 to U+1C7F.[14] With its Noto Sans Ol Chiki font, Google included Ol Chiki to its multi-script Noto font in 2015.[15] The font is currently included on Android, the mobile operating system maintained by Google. Similarly, Microsoft also currently ships the Nirmala UI font family, that supports Ol Chiki, in its Windows operating system.[16]

Input tools for typing Ol ChikiEdit

Parallel to the development of typefaces, there were community-led efforts to create input tools to type Santali in Ol Chiki, the We Santhals collective being a pioneer. Among other linguistic, technical and educational resources, We Santals also published input tools with guides such as keyboard layouts.[17] The input tools and keyboard layout were useful to use the typefaces that We Santals published, and paved the way for creation of input tools such as Sarjom Baha,[18] which are in use primarily on the Santali Wikipedia and other Wikimedia projects. The Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL), a linguistic technology development program by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology of the Indian government has standardized input tools such Inscript both in Ol Chiki[19] and Devanagari[20]. The Inscript layouts are also accepted widely across platforms like the Universal Language Selector (ULS) that is used on all Wikimedia projects, and Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)[21] which were in turn added to Windows[22] from version 8.1 onwards.[23] Inscript2[24], a slight modification to the Inscript layout, is also in use systems such as ULS. Besides that many third party keyboard typing company such as Keyman[25] are using these layout. Software like MSKLC made custom keyboard layout designing very easy for Windows. One such example includes Bivash Keyboard, a phonetic keyboard layout created by Bivash Soren, a native Santali speaker and developer.[26]


Platforms such as PramukhIME provide Ol Chiki script and Devanagari [27], where phonetic layouts are used for Ol Chiki script.[28], Online Input method like developed by Gyana111[29] uses both Inscript2 and Sarjom Baha layout developed under Project Ol Chiki. There are plenty other layouts for other languages too.[30] It is also possibe to create our own custom keyboard using various softwares like MSKLC.

There are some Open source Databases for Santali language like Mozilla Common Voice Database which can be helpful for the developes trying to develop open source database for Speech to Text. Readily available CC licensed free Voice clips from, can be helpful for the developers who want to create TTS software.

Also, various transliteration tools are available for Santali languages like Aksharamukha, ASCII to Ol Chiki[31], ASCII to Ol Chiki[32] and Ol Chiki to Latin.[33]

Some extensions are developed by Aksharamukha[34] and also by some Independent Developers like Santali Keyboard by Lenin Hansdah.[35]

Santali OCREdit

With the technology development we are leaving behind old method to copy all text from an Image by manually typing them, which will take ages if the image has thousands of texts. But, this problem can be fixed with OCR technology. We can process 1000 of texts in minutes. These are some softwares which can be used to process Images of Santali language (Ol Chiki) to extract text, It uses a technology called Tesserect: This blog contains video which explains, how these softwares can be used

  • gImagereader(needs external sat.tess data to be downlaoded) - Desktop application which can be used to process batch images in Santali language. Demerit: Yet to detect multiple language, cannot detect a image having both Santali and Odia or Santali or Hindi langauage. It is also to be noted that Tess data can detect multiple languages in an Image (Can detect well both Odia and Hindi combination using "or.tess" and "hi.tess") but due to lack of technical support it is not possible for now. Only images having full Santali text can be detected.
  • TextFairy - An android application, good news now Santali can be selected within the application (which downloads from their server later). Now, the same "sat.tess" file is used in TextFairy for detecting Santali text.

These Santali tess data was created by RKVS Raman and he hosted them in this [website]. Along with Santali (sat) tess data many other languages tess data's such as Bengali (ben), Gujarati (guj), Hindi (hin), Kannada (kan), Malayalam (mal), Meetei Meyak (mni), Oriya (ori), Punjabi (pan), Tamil (tam) and Telugu (tel) were developed by Raman.

These Tess data can be trained by anyone, but it's time consuming. I have self created one Santali tess data 1 year back.


One of the major problem that will pave the way for tribal people for their digital development is poverty. If a person's wage is less than ₹34 a day then will he be able to think about opening a digital shop or shall he try to fight for living. The answer is very obvious he shall take care to live. This problem is one of the most challenging one where there is no chance for a person to think anything beside his family. Because majority of Tribal population are undergoing poverty and a significant amount of population is educated and know about digital treasure. Situation is improving a lot when Governments are supporting poor people by providing them free education, free mid day meals to attract students to school, providing people food at very low cost, and many more government schemes to help people come out from poverty. This research would be helpful only for those who are educated enough to read our Research paper. There will be efforts to translate this page and create a video for them so that the secret to monetize web content should no longer be a stagnent think for them.

There are some of bloggers who try to demotivate the writers who prefer to write in Ol Chiki script.[36] This may be the reason of demotivation for some online content creators. These types of people are not helpful instead they create a barrier by giving vague knowledge without any solution and create more confusion among the community. Each creator should be free to use in whichever script they want and should not criticize or blame each other for any writing system, as each script is unique and is made for each language.

There was a need for a single script for the community, so that there is a common understanding among each other. Use of multiple script has also baffled the situation, where some of the best scientific work were done in Roman script whereas the Bengali and Devanagari script were the best of the bunch in literary work.[37]

Digital Shop is in trending now a daysEdit

As, more people are getting educated they are exploring a new opportunity. Internet is one of the most powerful weapon which is only useful when used properly. If one masters internet then he/she/neutral can earn for a great living. Many people are earning a lot from web platforms like Youtube, Blogger and Facebook platform. They either earn by the means of advertisement or by paid subscriptions some also try to make a living through donation. Surprisingly there are some people who leave there jobs because they are gaining more profit form Internet. Some of the most popular people out there who left there jobs only for their passion and ability to make a living from Internet are as follows:

Amit Agarwal's success storyEdit

Amit Agarwal loves Internet and is an entrepreneur, also gained a position of GDE in Google Workspace and GAS with a degree in Computer Science from IIT. He made the profession of Blogging popular in India and is also known as the first professional blogger in India. He left his job only because he was very comfortable with the other kind of job he likes. It's called blogging, It is one of most powerful platform in the Internet where people earn money primarily from ads. He owns labnol[38]. His 75% of source of income are mostly from Blogging and Google Work.[39]

Technical resourcesEdit

These are some of the tools which may help content creator boost their work:

Abbreviation : TDIL- Technology Dev for Indian Languages , GOI - Government of India, TTS - Text to Speech Technical resources, MSKLC - Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator


Once your study completes, describe the results and their implications here. Don't forget to make status=complete above when you are done.


Glossary of termsEdit

  • GDE: Google Developer Expert
  • GAC: Google Apps Script
  • IIT: Indian Institute of Technology


Design sprintEdit

Sprint 1: September 5 - 12Edit

Abbreviation : Open Source Software - OSS

  • Changes to literature review format (change from objective to descriptive and include inline citations)
  • Develop How Might I questions
  • Discuss plans for CC Summit talk
Research questions
  1. How might I design a solution for a Santali-language content creator to monetize web content in Santali?
    • Challenges
    • Opportunities/scope
  2. How might I create documentation for a Santali-language content creator to monetize web content in Santali?
    • Available documentation that can be translated?
    • What other languages Santali content creators can understand and if the documentation is available in those languages?
  3. How might I guide content creators to get their content reviewed by professionals so that it [their content] can be trusted by more people?
  4. How might I decide Best Website host and best domain for the creators?
    • Estimate the total number of Available website host.
    • Can choose best domain names using various domain name generator tool.
  5. How might I create a option for each people, like cheap, medium and High? and the quality remains same independent of where you create or host.
    • Estimate the total number of Available website host and compare each of them (needs excel software).
  6. How might I decide which 3rd party advertisements will be best for the advisement?
    • Estimate the total number of Advertiser.
  7. How might I guide others to attract interested audiences for the website.
    • Estimate the source of audience from various websites.
  8. How might I guide creators to organize challenges: Traffic police organizes quiz and reward perks.
    • Calculate the frequency of competion organizing and prize money for each competion.
  9. How might I recommend good News, magazine which are some most viewed written content.
    • Estimate the source of audience from various websites.
    • Creation of Feedback forms for users.
  10. How might I help creator deliver constant motivation and thinking.
    • Talk with people who have already achieved success.
    • Talk with experts in the field of Web Monetization.
  11. How might I help creator plan a content creation SOP.
    • Take suggestion from Big successful Organizaiton.
  12. How might I guide creator to make people aware of prescence of written content in web.
    • Provide wide range of tools and tutorials to creator.
    • Recommend to master creator in Internet search.
  13. How might I guide creator to Increase his platform accessibility and reach.
    • Provide wide range of tools and tutorials to creator.
    • Recommend to master creator in Internet search.
  14. How might I guide creator to handle disputes.
    • Provide wide range of tools and tutorials to creator.
    • Recommend to master creator in Internet search.
    • Good knowledge if the topic, if don't know then consult a professional expert.
  15. How might I motivate creator to constantly create content.
    • Talk with people who have already achieved success.
    • Talk with experts in the field of Web Monetization.
  16. How might I make realise creator about the possible benefits of web content in future?
    • Generate a list of successful people and their achievment in the field of Internet Job.
  17. How might I guide creator to generate ideas for the content
    • Search for Internet tools which generate ideas generator ex. Blog Ideas Generator(Just put some nouns and you will get many ideas).
  18. How might I decide which open source resources should i recommend for content.
    • Free opensource sentences can be copied and used for content generation. ex. Tatoeba(Santali language sentences in Tatoeba)
    • Common Voice is a future of Machine voice.
  19. How might I choose anyone of the free OSS can be used to run a Website.
    • Estimate the total number of Available OSS host and compare each of them (needs excel software).
  20. How might I choose platform for a creator to post, and what steps he/she/neural needs to follow.
    • Find best, secure, cheap platform.
  21. How might I guide creator to create gender neutral creator guidelines.
    • Tell the importance of Gender Neutrality.
  22. How might I help eliminate initial failures for a creator.
    • Learn to fail knowingly, properly and later try steps to overcome.
  23. How might I guide creator to help select Target audiences.
    • Take surveys from audience that which content they are much more interested.
  24. How might I make creator aware of job security, if one opts for a living with digital content but also explore it's unlimited scope.
    • Job backup

CC Summit talk

Abstract: Majority of the world’s languages are spoken and not written. However, only 7% of the world’s knowledge is captured in publication. (WhoseKnowledge? 2019) Languages with limited resources face the risk of low content creation and low readership. Most such languages do not experience a content demand surge nor a faster growth of content producers. We will be demonstrating how and which socio-economic, policy-level and technical factors affect indigenous-language content, especially the Ho and Santali languages of India from research supported by Grant for the Web and Creative Commons CAF fund.

  • Overall progress from the GftW project
    • Learning from literature review
    • Learning from participation in open source (e.g. Mozilla Common Voice,, - Many open source applications are translated in Santali laguage including Ankidroid (for student), MX Player (Entertainment application) and many more, Onesky - Data counter application is translated using this platform, Mozilla's Pontton - Firefox Android, iOS and many undergoing projects, Transifex - VLC Android is translated using this platform, - Clear Scan application was translated using this platform, Weblate - Applications like Newpipe, Babydots are translated using this application, Telegram Translation, , 55 Stories for Kids in Santali language(Storyweaver)) open knowledge projects (Santali Wikipedia), Google Translate Contribution (native: ᱜᱩᱜᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱨᱡᱚᱢᱟ) - Still is in beta and will soon reach 3 lakh contributions (one of the most contributed platform by Santlali people), Open translation projects list, Glosbe - First successful online open participation dictionary, it's interface is also translated in Santali language, Omegawiki - Santali words defintions can be found here.

Sprint 2: September 12 - 19Edit

  • Select from "How Might I" questions from the list by upvoting
  • Create a prototype for user testing
  • Discuss interview questions based on prototype
  • Discuss plans for CC Summit

Ideas and TasksEdit

This is an experimental section and these ideas/tasks can be complete out scope for this research project. But, it may impact the project indirectly. Various other requests are also made before the start of this research project (can be found here)

  • Open more online crowdsource platforms for more online people engagements online for Santali Community.
  • Open Tatoeba for Santali language contribution(Santali language is now available as an option for contribution.)
  • Request developers in various platforms to add Santali language.
  • Qmamu (Indian Search Engine) - Request the developer team of Qmamu to add Santali language as an interface language.(Pending)



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  4. "Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages". Census of India. 20 May 2013. 
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  7. "Santali (Sorted by Popularity Ascending)". IMDb. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022. 
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  11. "About available languages in the Google Ads interface - Google Ads Help". Google Inc. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2022. 
  12. "Noto fonts not included for Warang Citi and Wancho". Issue Tracker. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022. 
  13. Murmu, N. C.; Hansdah, R. C. (2002-05). "Ol Chiki Fonts". a portal for Santals. We Santhals. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. The Unicode Standard (Ol Chiki: Range: 1C50–1C7F) (PDF) (Report). The Unicode Consotium. 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2021. 
  15. "". Google. 2015. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  16. Ali, Basit; Constable, Peter; Jacobs, Mike (11 March 2020). "Nirmala UI font family". Microsoft Docs: Typography. Microsoft. Retrieved 17 September 2021. 
  17. Murmu, N.C. (17 July 2007). "Key Board Mapping for Ol Chiki". a portal for Santals. Wesanthals E-Group. Retrieved 17 September 2021. 
  18. "UniversalLanguageSelector/Input methods/sat-Sarjom baha". MediaWiki. Access to Knowledge, Centre for Internet and Society. 4 May 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021. 
  21. "Layouts: Santali (sat)". CLDR Charts. Unicode Consortium. 7 April 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.