Research:Metrics for quantifying the gender content gap/Extended bibliography

A collection of ressources that I came across in connection with the gender content gap (most likely this is missing relevant works, if so, add it or let me know).


The gender gap has been prominently featured in countless news articles


There are many different community initiatives discussing, documenting, and addressing the gender content gap.

  • Blog: Gender and deletion on Wikipedia,
    • A blogpost by Andrew Gray from 2019 reporting on numbers on the content gender gap by counting articles on biographies of living persons, BLP, (by gender), comparing their length, and looking at how many have been nominated for deletion.
  • Blog: Deleted gender wars
    • Following up on andrew gray’s analysis but looking at actual deletions not only those that survived
  • User:Magnus Manske/Women in properties
    • Blogpost by Magnus Manske from February 2020 investigating counting the fraction of humans of a given gender in wikidata that use a given property. The gender imbalance is very different across the 1323 properties covering the whole spectrum from 0-1, however, most properties show a smaller fraction of women.
  • Gender equity report 2018
    • A report from 2018 based on interviews with 65 Wikimedians. Contains a list of the many projects that have been initiated and/or were mentioned by the interviewees.
  • Portal: Gender gap
    • The portal on gender gap on meta is a hub for resources and information about wikimedia’s gender gap. Differentiating between the content and participation gap, it has pointers to mailing lists, research, other reports/surveys/discussions, groups , initiatives, and events. In May 2020, the page has been updates (see discussion on Wikimedia-l)
  • Research: Gender gap in wikipedia’s content
    • A completed research project from 2017 by Netha Hussain with the aim of creating a systematic review of peer-reviewed published research papers on gender gap on Wikipedida’s content. see also presentation “research on gender gap on wikipedia
  • Research:Content_gaps_on_Wikipedia.
    • A completed research project from 2019 by Jonathan Morgan on content gaps in Wikipedia with the aim of capturing different aspects of content gaps (selection, extent, framing).
  • Space: What is the size of the gender gap? Like, actually?
    • Discussion from January 2020 asking about the size of the gender gap.
  • Wikigap challenge
    • An initiative run in April 2020 by the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Wikimedia Sverige with support from Swedisch embassies, the UN Human Rights Office and Wikimedia affiliates across the world. The event was a public writing competition to create and improve coverage of women and related topics into as many languages on WIkipedia.
  • Wikimedia-l: Fresh data on the gender gap in content
  • Wikiproject: Women in red
    • Founded in July 2015, the Women in Red (WiR) is a group of editors who aim to address the gender content gap by increasing content on women biographies on different Wikimedia projects (Wikipedia, Commons, Wikidata).
  • Countering systemic bias/Gender gap task force
    • Founded in 2013, this initiatives is one of the task forces to counter systemic biases in Wikipedia to address some of the problems women face on Wikipedia, whether as editors or article subjects.


  • WDCM: Biases
    • The Wikidata Concepts Monitor (WDCM) is a system that analyzes and visualizes Wikidata usage across the Wikimedia projects developed and maintained by Goran Milovanociv from WMDE. One of the dashboards is on biases which focuses about gender bias by comparing the number of item associated with men and women and their usage in Wikimedia projects.
  • Denezeleh - Gender Gap in Wikimedia projects
    • A project from Envel Le Hir and Wikimedia France showing different statistics on gender of biographies in wikidata with different properties
  • WHGI. Wikidata Human Gender Indicators
    • This is a project by User:Maximilianklein. It was funded by WMF as a Individual engagement grant. It shows different statistics on gender of biographies in wikidata with different properties: Culture (e.g. orthodox, islamic, etc), Country, Date of birth, Wikipedia project (existence of page). Aspects of this project were also published in a scientfic paper (Konieczny&Klein 2018).
  • WHO.
    • Funded project (May 2020) to make the next generation of Wikidata diversity statistic tools by merging WHGI and Denelezh by developers of denelezh and whgi (see above)
  • Maps of world knowledge
    • This tool was developed by a team led by Shilad Sen at Macalester College in 2016. The tool provides different maps to visualize and explore the content of (English) Wikipedia. For example the Map of Wikipedia Gender Focus visualizes the gender focus of Wikipedia articles. Cities represent articles, with neighboring cities being related in meaning. Gender focus is based by the number of times a Wikipedia article refers to men and women. Parts of this are contained in (Sen et al. 2019)
  • Wikipedia Gap Finder Tool


  • Adams, J., Brückner, H., & Naslund, C. (2019). Who Counts as a Notable Sociologist on Wikipedia? Gender, Race, and the “Professor Test.” Socius, 5, 2378023118823946.
  • Bamman, D., & Smith, N. A. (2014). Unsupervised Discovery of Biographical Structure from Text. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2, 363–376.
  • Brun, N. B., Kypraiou, S., Altés, N. G., & Barrios, I. P. (2020). Wikigender: A Machine Learning Model to Detect Gender Bias in Wikipedia. Wiki Workshop 2020.
  • Eom, Y.-H., Aragón, P., Laniado, D., Kaltenbrunner, A., Vigna, S., & Shepelyansky, D. L. (2015). Interactions of cultures and top people of Wikipedia from ranking of 24 language editions. PloS One, 10(3), e0114825.
  • Fisher, J., Palfrey, D., Christodoulopoulos, C., & Mittal, A. (2019). Measuring Social Bias in Knowledge Graph Embeddings. In arXiv [cs.CL]. arXiv.
  • Garg, N., Schiebinger, L., Jurafsky, D., & Zou, J. (2018). Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(16), E3635–E3644.
  • Graells-Garrido, E., Lalmas, M., & Menczer, F. (2015). First women, second sex: Gender bias in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 26th ACM. Retrieved from
  • Halfaker, A. (2017). Interpolating Quality Dynamics in Wikipedia and Demonstrating the Keilana Effect. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, 19. ACM.
  • Hinnosaar, M. (2019). Gender Inequality in New Media: Evidence from Wikipedia. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 163, 262–276.
  • Hube, C. (2017). Bias in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, 717–721.
  • Klein, M., & Konieczny, P. (2015). Wikipedia in the world of global gender inequality indices: what the biography gender gap is measuring. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, 16.
  • Klein, M., Gupta, H., Rai, V., Konieczny, P., & Zhu, H. (2016). Monitoring the Gender Gap with Wikidata Human Gender Indicators. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Open Collaboration, 16. ACM.
  • Konieczny, P., & Klein, M. (2018). Gender gap through time and space: A journey through Wikipedia biographies via the Wikidata Human Gender Indicator. New Media & Society, 20(12), 4608–4633.
  • Menking, A., McDonald, D. W., & Zachry, M. (2017). Who Wants to Read This?: A Method for Measuring Topical Representativeness in User Generated Content Systems. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing - CSCW ’17, 2068–2081. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press.
  • Menking, A., & Rosenberg, J. (2020). WP:NOT, WP:NPOV, and Other Stories Wikipedia Tells Us: A Feminist Critique of Wikipedia’s Epistemology. Science, Technology & Human Values, 0162243920924783.
  • Reagle, J., & Rhue, L. (2011). Gender Bias in Wikipedia and Britannica. International Journal of Communication Systems, 5(0), 21.
  • Schellekens, M. H., Holstege, F., & Yasseri, T. (2019). Female scholars need to achieve more for equal public recognition. Retrieved from
  • Sen, S., Swoap, A. B., Li, Q., Dippenaar, I., Ngo, M., Pujol, S., Gold, R., Boatman, B., Hecht, B., & Jackson, B. (2019). Toward Universal Spatialization Through Wikipedia-Based Semantic Enhancement. ACM Trans. Interact. Intell. Syst, 9(2-3).
  • Vitulli, M. A. (2018). Writing Women in Mathematics into Wikipedia. Notices of the AMs, 65(3).
  • Wagner, C., Garcia, D., Jadidi, M., & Strohmaier, M. (2015). It’s a man's Wikipedia? Assessing gender inequality in an online encyclopedia. Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Retrieved from
  • Wagner, C., Graells-Garrido, E., Garcia, D., & Menczer, F. (2016). Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia. EPJ Data Science, 5(1), 1–24.
  • Young, A., Wigdor, A. D., & Kane, G. (2016). It’s Not What You Think: Gender Bias in Information about Fortune 1000 CEOs on Wikipedia. ICIS 2016 Proceedings. Retrieved from
  • Zagovora, O., Flöck, F., & Wagner, C. (2017). “(Weitergeleitet von Journalistin)”: The Gendered Presentation of Professions on Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Web Science Conference - WebSci ’17, 83–92. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press.