Wiki Loves Living Heritage/Chhau dance
Chhau dance edit
- A semi classical martial Indian dance found in its eastern states
- Wikidata item: Chhau dance (Q1071518)
- UNESCO ICH ID: RL/00337
- instance of: type of dance
- country: India
- subclass of: Indian folk dance and war dance
- indigenous to: Purulia district, Mayurbhanj district and Seraikela Kharsawan district
- intangible cultural heritage status: Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity () and National List for Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH)
- described at URL: https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00337 (English)
Chhau dance is a tradition from eastern India that enacts episodes from epics including the Ramayana and Mahabharata, local folklore and abstract themes. Its three distinct styles hail from the regions of Seraikela Kharsawan district, Purulia Chhau dance and Mayurbhanj Chhau of Orissa, the first two using Chhau mask. Chhau dance is intimately connected to regional festivals, notably the spring festival Chaitra Parva. Its origin is traceable to indigenous forms of dance and martial practices. Its vocabulary of movement includes mock combat techniques, stylized gaits of birds and animals and movements modelled on the chores of village housewives. Chhau is taught to male dancers from families of traditional artists or from local communities. The dance is performed at night in an open space to traditional and folk melodies, played on the reed pipes mahuri and shehnai. The reverberating drumbeats of a variety of drums dominate the accompanying music ensemble. Chhau is an integral part of the culture of these communities. It binds together people from different social strata and ethnic background with diverse social practices, beliefs, professions and languages. However, increasing industrialization, economic pressures and new media are leading to a decrease in collective participation with communities becoming disconnected from their roots.
The dances mainly come from communities known as Mundas, Mahatos, Kalindis, Pattnaiks, Samals, Darogas, Mohantys, Acharyas, Bhols, Kars, Dubeys, and Sahoos. Musicians are from the communities known as Mukhis, Kalindis, Ghadheis, Dhada. They are also involved in the making of the instruments. Masks form an integral part of Chhau Dance in Purulia and Seraikella. Communities of traditional painters known as Maharanas, Mohapatras, Sutradhars are involved in the making of these masks.
- "UNESCO - Chhau dance". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 2023-01-02.
- "National List for Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH)".
- Slawek, Stephen; Emmert, Richard; Izumi, Hasumoto; Hitoshi, Matsushita; Maki, Okada (1984). "Dance and Music in South Asian Drama: Report of Asian Traditional Performing Arts 1981". Yearbook for Traditional Music 16: 130. doi:10.2307/768217.
- Richard Emmert: Dance and Music in South Asian Drama. Chhau, Mahākāli pyākhan and Yakshagāna. Report of Asian Traditional Performing Arts 1981. Academia Music, Tokyo 1983.
- Andrew Tsubaki, Farley P. Richmond: Chau. In: Farley P. Richmond, Darius L. Swann, Phillip B. Zarrilli (Hrsg.): Indian Theatre. Traditions of Performance. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1990, S. 359–383.
- Kapila Vatsyayan: Mayurabhanj Chhau. In: Eknath Ranade (Hrsg.): Vivekananda Kendra Patrika. Distinctive Cultural Magazine of India. Vol. 10, No. 2 (Theme: Dances of India) August 1981, S. 93–117.
- Seraikella Kharsawan through the ages By Shri Tikayat Nrupendra Narayan Singh Deo
- Seraikella Chhau By Shri Jugbhanu Singh Deo
- Marg Issue (December 1968) on the Chhau Dances of India.
- Mayurbhanj Chhau Dance By Shri Dhirendra Nath Pattnaik
- Purulia Chhau by Dr. Ashutosh Bhattacharya.
- An Introduction to Chhau Dance of Mayurbhanj By Shri Kanhu Charan Biswal
- "Purulia District, Government of West Bengal | Land of Chou and Palash | India" (in en-US). Retrieved 2023-01-02.
- South Asian folklore : an encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills. New York: Routledge. 2003. ISBN 0-415-93919-4. OCLC 49276478.
- "Purulia Chhau" (PDF). web.archive.org. Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2023-01-02.