User:Rich Farmbrough/Sandbox

Rutgers UniversityEdit

The following text fragments were added by Vanished_user_azby388723i8jfjh32 and at least the underlined text is still there at approx 2014-04-26 05:17:29.

  1. [[Image:OldQueensRutgers.JPG|right|Old drawing of the Old Queens, built from 1809-1823, the oldest surviving building on campus]]
  2. In its early years, Queens College was plagued by a lack of funds. In 1793, with the fledgling college falling on hard times, the board of trustees voted on a resoluton to merge with the College of New Jersey (now [[Princeton University]]). The measure failed by one vote. The problem did not go away, and in 1795, lacking both funds and tutors, the trustees consider moving the college to New York. Instead, they decide to close, only to reopen in 1808. The next year, the college got a building of its own, which is now called "Old Queens" (and which still stands), however, continued financial woes would cause the building to wait 14 years for completion, and Queens College closed down a second time, in [[1812]].
  3. In [[1825]], Queen's College was reopened, and its name was changed to "Rutgers College" in honor of [[American Revolutionary War]] hero Colonel [[Henry Rutgers]] (1745-1830). According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values, however, it probably helped that the Colonel gave a gift that set the college on secure financial footing. Rutgers, a descendant of an old Dutch family that settled in [[New Amsterdam]] (now [[New York City]]), gave the fledgling college a $5000 bond and a bell to be placed in the cupola of Old Queens. The college's early troubles inspired numerous student songs, including an adaptation of the drinking song ''Down Among the Dead Men'' with the lyrics "Here's a drink to old Rutgers, loyal men, May she ne'er go down but to rise again."
  4. Its alma mater, or anthem, is ''On the Banks of the Old Raritan'', written by Howard Fullerton (Class of 1872), and it features the line "For has she not stood / Since the time of the Flood / On the banks of the old Raritan". Fullerton, a member of the [[Order of the Bull's Blood]], was alleged to have inspired the theft of a cannon from the campus of [[Princeton University]] in 1875.
  5. To this day, intrepid Rutgers students journey the 16 miles to [[Princeton University]] to place their declaration of ownership of the cannon by painting the cannon scarlet red. Unfortunately, like the students who stole the cannon in [[1875]], they usually paint the wrong cannon, as there are two behind [[Nassau Hall]] at Princeton.
  6. The [[Raritan River]], to which the song alludes, flows between the [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick]] and [[Piscataway, New Jersey|Piscataway]] portions of the New Brunswick/Piscataway campus. The Raritan last flooded in [[1999]], during [[Hurricane Floyd]], closing the campus for two days due to the blockage of bridges over the river.
  7. [[Image:1882RutgersFootballTeam.jpg|left|Image of the Rutgers College Football Team, 1882]]
  8. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is one of the leading universities in the nation and is unique in being the only university in the nation to be a colonial chartered college (1766), a land-grant institution (1864), and a state university (1945/1956).
  9. The university is made up of 29 degree-granting divisions; 12 undergraduate colleges, 11 graduate schools, and three schools offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Five are located in Camden, seven in Newark, and 14 in New Brunswick/Piscataway.
  10. Chartered in 1766 as Queen's College, the eighth institution of higher learning to be founded in the colonies, the school opened its doors in New Brunswick in 1771 with a lone instructor, a single sophomore, and a handful of first-year students. During its early years, the college developed as a classic liberal arts institution.
  11. Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry. Further expansion in the sciences came with the founding of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station in 1880, the College of Engineering (now the School of Engineering) in 1914, and the College of Agriculture (now Cook College) in 1921. The precursors to several other Rutgers divisions were also established during this period: the College of Pharmacy (now the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy) in 1892, the New Jersey College for Women (now Douglass College) in 1918, and the School of Education in 1924.
  12. The first Summer Session began in 1913 with one six-week session. That summer program offered 47 courses and had an enrollment of 314 students. Currently, Summer Session offers over 1,000 courses to more than 15,000 students on the [[Camden, New Jersey|Camden]], [[Newark, New Jersey|Newark]], and [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick]]/[[Piscataway, New Jersey|Piscataway]] campuses, off-campus, and abroad.
  13. Since the 1950's, Rutgers has continued to expand, especially in the area of graduate education. The Graduate School—New Brunswick, Graduate School—Newark, and Graduate School—Camden each serve their respective campuses. In addition, professional schools have been established in such areas as management, social work, criminal justice, applied and professional psychology, the fine arts, and communication, information and library studies. (A number of these schools offer undergraduate programs as well.) Also at the undergraduate level, Livingston College was founded in 1969, emphasizing the urban environment.
  14. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is accredited by the [[Commission on Higher Education]] of the [[Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools]] (since 1921). In 1989, Rutgers University became a member of the [[Association of American Universities]], an organization comprised of the 62 leading research universities in [[North America]].
  15. Its alma mater, or anthem, is ''On the Banks of the Old Raritan'', written by Howard Fullerton (Class of 1872), and it features the line "For has she not stood / Since the time of the Flood / On the banks of the old Raritan". Fullerton, a member of the [[Order of the Bull's Blood]], was alleged to have inspired the theft of a cannon from the campus of [[Princeton University]] in [[1875]], an event—and the ensuing debate between the two university presidents—reported in nationwide newspapers, and led to an unsuccessful repeat of the crime in [[1946]].
  16. In addition to being the "birthplace of college football," Rutgers has given birth to discoveries and innovations such as [[Cheez-Whiz]], water-soluble sustained release polymers, [[Tetraploids]], robotic hands, and [[artificial bovine insemination]].
  17. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers became the "Birthplace of [[College Football]]" when it defeated Princeton, six "runs" to four, in the first intercollegiate football game ever played (the site, then a field, is now occupied by the College Avenue Gymnasium). Instead of wearing uniforms, the players stripped off their hats, coats, and vests and bound their suspenders around the waistbands of their trousers. For headgear, the Rutgers team wound their scarlet scarves into turbans atop their heads. The rules, more resembling those of English [[rugby]] than what developed into American football, included limiting each team to 25 men on the field at once and banning throwing or running with the ball. Rutgers got [[Columbia University]] started in the grid sport the following season and in a few years most of the East's colleges and universities were represented on the gridiron.
  18. To this day, intrepid Rutgers students journey the 16 miles to [[Princeton University]] to place their declaration of ownership of the cannon by painting the cannon scarlet red. Unfortunately, like the students who stole the cannon in [[1875]], they usually paint the wrong cannon, as there are two behind [[Nassau Hall]] at Princeton. Today, a cannon is placed in the ground memorializing both this event, and a few alumni in the service who were killed in action. At Commencement, tradition leads undergraduates to break clay pipes over the cannon, symbolizing the breaking of ties with the college, and leaving behind the good times of one's undergraduate years. This symbolism dates back to when pipe-smoking was fashionable among undergraduates, and many college memories were derived from evenings of pipe smoking and revelry with friends.
  19. * [[Joseph P. Bradley]], Class of [[1836]] - Associate Justice, [[United States Supreme Court]]
  20. * [[Clifford P. Case]], Class of [[1925]] - [[United States Senator]]
  21. * [[Louis Freeh]], Class of [[1971]] - Director of the [[Federal Bureau of Investigation|FBI]] ([[1993]]-[[2001]])
  22. * [[Frederick T. Frelinghuysen]], Class of [[1836]] - [[Vice President|Vice Presidential]] Candidate, [[United States Senator]]
  23. * [[Garret A. Hobart]], Class of [[1863]] - Industrialist, [[Vice President of the United States]], ([[1897]]-[[1899]])
  24. * [[William Newell]], Class of [[1836]], Physician, [[Governor]] of [[New Jersey]]
  25. * [[Hazel O'Leary]], U.S. Secretary of Energy ([[1993]]-[[1997]])
  26. * [[David A. Morse]], Class of [[1929]] - Director-General of [[ILO]] who accepted the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] in [[1969]] on behalf of the ILO
  27. * [[Robert Torricelli]], Class of [[1974]], [[United States Senator]], [[Congressman]]
  28. * [[Bernard Marcus]], Class of [[1951]] - Founder of the [[Home Depot]]
  29. * [[Leonor F. Loree]], Class of [[1877]] - President of the [[Pennsylvania Railroad]]
  30. * [[Clifton R. Lacy]], Class of 1975 - [[New Jersey]] Commissioner of Health and Senior Services
  31. * [[Selman Waksman]], Class of [[1915]] - discovered 22 [[antibotics]], best known for [[streptomycin]]. [[Nobel]] laureate.
  32. * [[Carol Christ]], Class of [[1966]] - President of [[Smith College]]
  33. * [[William H. S. Demarest]], Class of [[1883]], President of [[Rutgers University]]
  34. * [[Philip Milledoler Brett]], Class of [[1892]], President of [[Rutgers University]], Successful Corporate Attorney
  35. * [[Carl Woodward]], Class of [[1914]], President of [[University of Rhode Island]]
  36. * [[Simeon DeWitt]], Class of [[1776]] - [[Geographer]] for [[George Washington]] and [[Contintenal Army]] during the [[American Revolution]]
  37. * [[Peter C. Schultz]], Class of [[1964]] - co-inventor of [[fiber optics]]
  38. * [[Stanley N. Cohen]], Class of [[1956]] - geneticist, pioneer in [[gene splicing]]
  39. * [[Robert Pinsky]], Class of [[1962]], [[Poet Laureate]] of the [[United States of America|United States]], Winner of the [[Pulitzer Prize]].
  40. * [[Michael Shaara]], Class of [[1951]] - author of ''The Killer Angels'' and Winner of the [[Pulitzer Prize]]
  41. * [[Kristin Davis]], Class of [[1987]], - Actress (''[[Sex and the City]]''
  42. * [[Mr. Magoo]], beloved cartoon character.
  43. * [[Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson]], Class of [[1927]] - Musician and Actor (''[[Ozzie and Harriet]]'')
  44. * [[Paris Qualles]], Class of 1974 - Screenwriter
  45. * [[David Stern]], Class of [[1963]] - Commissioner of the [[National Basketball Association]]
  46. A list of student organizations at Rutgers University, mostly endorsed by the university administration (some are not for various reasons), including links to their official websites when available.
  47. * [http://www.rcga.rutgers.edu Rutgers College Governing Association]
  48. * [http://rcpc.rutgers.edu/ Rutgers College Programming Council]
  49. * [http://www.lcga.rutgers.edu/ Livingston College Governing Assocation]
  50. * [http://www.dcga.rutgers.edu/ Douglass College Governing Assocation]
  51. * [http://aesop.rutgers.edu/%7Ecccouncil/ Cook College Council]
  52. * [http://gsa.rutgers.edu/ Graduate Student Association]
  53. * [http://coewww.rutgers.edu/egc/ Engineering Governing Council (College of Engineering)]
  54. * [http://pharmacy.rutgers.edu/pgc/ Pharmacy Governing Council (College of Pharmacy)]
  55. * [http://senate.rutgers.edu/ Rutgers University Senate]
  56. * [[The Daily Targum]] - established 1869, one of the nation's oldest college newpspaers.
  57. * [http://www.themedium.net The Medium] - Rutgers University's controversial humor paper.
  58. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~antho The Anthologist]
  59. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~bvcl Black Voice/Carta Latina]
  60. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~objet Objet d'Art]
  61. * [http://www.rutgersreview.com Rutgers Review]
  62. * Screenwriters Community of Rutgers University
  63. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~ruat Academic Team]
  64. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~amsa American Medical Students Association]
  65. * [http://www.geocities.com/rutgersasa American Studies Association]
  66. * Association for Women in Communications
  67. * Association of Black Journalists
  68. * Association of Undergraduate Geneticists
  69. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rumbb Biochemistry Club]
  70. * Biology Club
  71. * [http://www.rutgersconsulting.org Consulting Club]
  72. * [http://debate.rutgers.edu Debate Union]
  73. * Geological Society of Rutgers
  74. * [http://www.hpagora.com HP Agora]
  75. * [http://www.ruitic.org Information Technology & Informatics Council]
  76. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rumm Master Minds]
  77. * [http://www.mbsa.rutgers.edu Minority Business Students Association]
  78. * [http://naba.rutgers.edu National Association of Black Accountants-New Brunswick Student Chapter]
  79. * Neuroscience Association
  80. * Psychological Society at Rutgers
  81. * [http://scils.rutgers.edu/~prssa Public Relations Student Society of America]
  82. * Science Association (Rutgers)
  83. * [http://anthro.rutgers.edu/ugrad/anthroclub/index.html Undergraduate Anthropology Club]
  84. * [http://geography.rutgers.edu/organizations/rugs_web/index.shtml Undergraduate Geographic Society]
  85. * [http://usacs.rutgers.edu Undergraduate Student Alliance of Computer Scientists]
  86. For more information on athletic programs and teams at Rutgers University, please see the official athletics website at [http://www.scarletknights.com www.scarletknights.com]
  87. '''Social and Political Organizations'''
  88. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~ruama American Muslim Affairs Committee]
  89. * [http://amnesty.rutgers.edu Amnesty International]
  90. * Association of International Relations
  91. * [http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~biglaru Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian Alliance of Rutgers University]
  92. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~cjam Culture Jam: Students Against Excessive Consumerism]
  93. * [http://www.rudems.org Democrats]
  94. * Israel Public Affairs Committee
  95. * Israeli Action Committee of RU
  96. * National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  97. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rurepubs Rutgers College Republicans], the university's chapter of the [[College Republican National Committee]].
  98. * [http://www.geocities.com/rusft Students for a Free Tibet]
  99. * Undergraduate Women's Studies Association
  100. * [http://gleeclub.rutgers.edu Rutgers University Glee Club] - established in 1872, is one of the premier all-male college singing groups.
  101. * [http://www.ruraag.com Asian Acapella Group]
  102. * [http://www.casualharmony.com Casual Harmony]
  103. * [http://www.collegeaveplayers.com College Avenue Players]
  104. * [http://www.deeptreble.com Deep Treble (coed a capella)]
  105. * [http://firstlight.rutgers.edu First Light (a capella)]
  106. * [http://musicweb.rutgers.edu/ensembles/kirk_choir Kirkpatrick Choir]
  107. * [http://www.kolhalayla.rutgershillel.org Kol Halayla, Hillel Jewish Acapella Singers]
  108. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~osporks Orphan Sporks]
  109. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rpdc Performing Dance Company]
  110. * Queen's Chorale
  111. * The Queen's Men (defunct)
  112. * [http://www.sapadance.com South Asian Performing Artists]
  113. * [http://voorheeschoir.rutgers.edu Voorhees Choir]
  114. * [[Brotherhood of the Golden Dagger]] is a [[secret society]] at Rutgers University, active from [[1895]]-[[1948]]
  115. * [[Order of the Bull's Blood]] is a [[secret society]] at Rutgers, established in [[1834]].
  116. * [[Sword and Serpent]] is a [[secret society]] at Rutgers, established in [[1870]].
  117. '''Fraternities and Sororities'''
  118. * Alpha Chi Omega
  119. * Delta Chi
  120. * Delta Gamma
  121. * Gamma Phi Beta
  122. * Kappa Sigma
  123. * Phi Delta Theta
  124. * Phi Sigma Kappa
  125. * Phi Sigma Sigma
  126. * Pi Kappa Alpha
  127. * Sigma Chi
  128. * Sigma Delta Tau
  129. * Sigma Kappa
  130. * Theta Chi
  131. * Zeta Psi
  132. * Zeta Tau Alpha
  133. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~deltarho Alpha Phi Omega]
  134. * [http://www.geocities.com/rutgerscki Circle K]
  135. * [http://www.rucommunitycares.org Community Cares]
  136. * [http://www.rubigbuddy.com Community Outreach/Big Buddy Program]
  137. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rchfh Habitat for Humanity]
  138. * [http://www.rusmiling.org Operation Smile]
  139. * Red Cross Club
  140. * [http://www.geocities.com/rutgersreaders Rutgers Readers]
  141. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rutc Tzu-Ching Buddhist Compassion Relief Foundation]
  142. * [[Cap and Skull]] is an [[honor society]] at Rutgers University, established in 1900.
  143. * [http://gk.rutgers.edu Golden Key International Honour Society]
  144. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~natsocs National Society of Collegiate Scholars]
  145. * [http://www.hoching.com/rmgl Multiplayer Gaming League]
  146. * [http://www.ruoc.rutgers.edu Outdoors Club]
  147. * [http://ruslug.rutgers.edu Student Linux User Group]
  148. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~ruasc Asian Student Council]
  149. * [http://www.ruair.net Association of Indians at Rutgers]
  150. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~raps Association of Philippine Students]
  151. * [http://bsa.rocks.it Bengali Students Association]
  152. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rubsu Black Student Union]
  153. * [http://all.at/rcc Cantonese Club]
  154. * [http://www.geocities.com/casaa1994/ Central and South American Alliance]
  155. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~dancetrp Chinese Dance Troupe]
  156. * [http://www.rutgerscso.com Chinese Student Organization]
  157. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rgc German Club]
  158. * Haitian Association at Rutgers University
  159. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~hca Hellenic Cultural Association]
  160. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~ruisa International Students Association]
  161. * [http://www.rujca.com Japanese Cultural Association]
  162. * [http://www.rkcg.org Korean Cultural Group]
  163. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~lsc2000 Latino Student Council]
  164. * [http://www.geocities.com/rulebanese Lebanese American Students of Rutgers University]
  165. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rons4evr Rutgers Organization of Nippon Students]
  166. * Society of Latin American Men
  167. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rutsa Turkish Student Association]
  168. * TWESE, Association of Africans & Friends of Africa
  169. * [http://www.rucuban.org Union of Cuban American Students]
  170. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~vsa Vietnamese Student Association]
  171. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~bahai Bahai Campus Association of Rutgers University]
  172. * Bible Fellowship (Rutgers University)
  173. * Buddha's Light Dharma Joy Club
  174. * [http://www.crusaderu.org Campus Crusade for Christ]
  175. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~catstu/ Catholic Students Association]
  176. * [http://www.chabad.rutgers.edu/ Chabad Jewish Student Organization]
  177. * [http://www.cof.rutgers.edu Coptic Orthodox Fellowship]
  178. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rufic Filipinos in Christ]
  179. * [http://www.rutgershillel.org Hillel]
  180. * [http://www.ivmef.rutgers.edu Intervarsity Multi-Ethnic Christian Fellowship]
  181. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~muslims Islamic Society at Rutgers University]
  182. * [http://www.kcf.net Korean Christian Fellowship]
  183. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~mbread Manna Ministries]
  184. * [http://www.geocities.com/resurrection_ministries Resurrection Ministries]
  185. * [http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~rusikhs Rutgers University Sikhs]
  186. * [http://www.rutgers.edu/ www.rutgers.edu - Rutgers University website]
  187. * [http://www.scarletknights.com/ www.scarletknights.com - Official Rutgers Athletics Website]
  188. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is one of the leading universities in the nation and is unique in being the only university in the nation to be a [[colonial college|colonial chartered college]] ([[1766]]), a [[land grant colleges|land-grant institution]] ([[1864]]), and a [[state university]] ([[1945]]/[[1956]]).
  189. On [[September 10]], [[1970]], after several years of debate and planning, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into the previously all-male Rutgers College. The transformation from single-sex to coeducational institutions became a trend in many colleges across the United States that had—up to the late [[1960]]'s and early [[1970]]'s—remained all-male. Today, Douglass College (originally the New Jersey College for Women) remains all-female, while the rest of the institution is coeducational.
  190. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is accredited by the [[Commission on Higher Education]] of the [[Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools]] (since [[1921]]). In [[1989]], Rutgers University became a member of the [[Association of American Universities]], an organization comprised of the 62 leading research universities in [[North America]].
  191. ==Presidents of Rutgers University==
  192. 1. 1785-1790 Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh (1736-1790)
  193. 5. 1825-1840 Philip Milledoler (1775-1852)
  194. 8. 1862-1882 William H. Campbell (1808-1890)
  195. 11. 1906-1924 William Henry Steele Demarest (1863-1956)
  196. 13. 1930-1931 Phillip Milledoler Brett (1871-1960)
  197. 17. 1971-1989 Edward J. Bloustein (1925-1989)
  198. 19. 2002- Richard Levis McCormick (b. 1947)
  199. * [http://www.dailytargum.com The Daily Targum] - established 1869, one of the nation's oldest college newpspaers.
  200. * [http://www.dailytargum.com The Daily Targum] - the daily newspaper at Rutgers University, since 1869.
  201. * [http://ruweb.rutgers.edu/timeline/ "Rutgers Through the Years" Timeline] (for more on Rutgers history)
  202. [[Category:Rutgers University]]
  203. Today, Rutgers University is a member of the [[Big East Conference]], (in football since [[1991]], all other sports since [[1995]]) a collegiate athletic conference consisting of thirteen colleges and universities in the Northeastern United States. Rutgers, in terms of athletics, is a [[Division I-A]] school as sanctioned by the [[National Collegiate Athletic Association]].
  204. Its alma mater, or anthem, is ''On the Banks of the Old Raritan'', written by Howard Fullerton (Class of [[1872]]), and it features the line "For has she not stood / Since the time of the Flood / On the banks of the old Raritan". The [[Raritan River]], to which the song alludes, flows between the [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick]] and [[Piscataway, New Jersey|Piscataway]] portions of the New Brunswick/Piscataway campus. While the flood alluded to in the [[alma mater]] is most likely the biblical flood in the [[Genesis|Book of Genesis]], it bears an ironic relevance today. The [[Raritan River|Raritan]], a tidal river, last flooded in 1999, as a result of the rains of [[Hurricane Floyd]], and the rising water closed the campus for two days (despite rarely having closed in several decades), due to the flooding of bridges over the river.
  205. Howard Fullerton, a member of the [[Order of the Bull's Blood]], goes down in history not only for his penning the alma mater but for allegedly inspiring the theft of a cannon from the campus of [[Princeton University]] in [[1875]], an event—and the ensuing debate between the two university presidents—reported in nationwide newspapers. After the event, Princeton University officials ordered the cannon buried in the ground, encased in cement, with only a few feet of the butt end exposed above ground.
  206. Several Rutgers students attempted to repeat the crime, unsuccessfully, in October [[1946]]. With the efforts of the Princeton administration to thwart them unknown, they attach one end of a length of heavy chain to the cannon and the other to their Ford. Surprised by Princeton men and the local constabulatory, they gun the engine of the Ford so viciously that the car is torn in half. The Rutgers army manages to escape, but with neither the car nor their prize, the cannon.
  207. To this day, intrepid Rutgers students journey the 16 miles to [[Princeton University]] to place their declaration of ownership of the cannon by painting the cannon scarlet red. Unfortunately, like the students who stole the cannon in [[1875]], they usually paint the wrong cannon, as there are two behind [[Princeton University|Nassau Hall]] at [[Princeton University|Princeton]]. Today, a cannon is placed in the ground before Old Queens at Rutgers, memorializing both this event, and a few alumni in the service who were killed in action. At Commencement, tradition leads undergraduates to break clay pipes over the cannon, symbolizing the breaking of ties with the college, and leaving behind the good times of one's undergraduate years. This symbolism dates back to when pipe-smoking was fashionable among undergraduates, and many college memories were derived from evenings of pipe smoking and revelry with friends.
  208. Rutgers is the eighth oldest institution of higher learning established in the [[United States]], originally chartered as "Queen's College" in [[1766]].
  209. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey is one of the leading universities in the nation and is unique in being the only university in the nation to be a [[colonial college|colonial chartered college]] ([[1766]]), a [[land grant college|land-grant institution]] ([[1864]]), and a [[state university]] ([[1945]]/[[1956]]). While originally an institution affiliated with the [[Dutch Reformed Church]], the university is now non-sectarian and makes no religious demands on its students.
  210. Rutgers is the eighth oldest institution of higher learning established in the [[United States]], originally chartered as "Queen's College" in [[1766]].
  211. * [[Ozzie Nelson|Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson]], Class of [[1927]] — Musician and Actor (''[[The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet]]'')
  212. * [[James Florio|James J. Florio]] — ''former [[Governor of New Jersey]] (1989-1993)''
  213. city=Three campuses: [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick]] / [[Piscataway, New Jersey|Piscataway]], [[Camden, New Jersey|Camden]] and
  214. ==Divisions of the University==
  215. ===New Brunswick/Piscataway Campus===
  216. * Cook College
  217. * Douglass College
  218. * Livingston College
  219. * Rutgers College
  220. * University College–New Brunswick
  221. * College of Nursing
  222. * Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy
  223. * Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy
  224. * Graduate School–New Brunswick
  225. * Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology
  226. * Graduate School of Education
  227. * Mason Gross School of the Arts
  228. * Rutgers Business School–New Brunswick
  229. * School of Communication, Information and Library Studies
  230. * School of Engineering
  231. * School of Management and Labor Relations
  232. * School of Social Work
  233. * Newark College of Arts and Sciences
  234. * College of Nursing
  235. * Rutgers Business School–Newark
  236. * School of Criminal Justice
  237. * School of Law–Newark
  238. * Camden College of Arts and Sciences
  239. * School of Business–Camden
  240. * School of Law–Camden
  241. [[Image:OldQueensRutgers.jpg|thumb|270px|Old drawing of the Old Queens, built from 1809–1823, the oldest surviving building on campus]]
  242. In its early years, Queens College was plagued by a lack of funds. In [[1793]], with the fledgling college falling on hard times, the board of trustees voted on a resoluton to merge with the College of New Jersey (now [[Princeton University]]). The measure failed by one vote. The problem did not go away, and in [[1795]], lacking both funds and tutors, the trustees consider moving the college to New York. Instead, they decide to close, only to reopen in [[1808]] after the Trustees raised $12,000.
  243. The next year, Rutgers College got a building of its own, affectionately called "Old Queens" (which still stands), which is regarded today by architectural experts as one of the nation's finest examples of [[Federal architecture]]. University President Ira Condict laid the cornerstone on [[27 April]] [[1809]]. However, continued financial woes would cause the building to wait 14 years for completion, that combined with a nationwide economic depression and the impending [[War of 1812]] forced Queens College to close down a second time, in [[1812]].
  244. On [[November 6]], [[1869]], Rutgers became the "Birthplace of [[College Football]]" when it defeated Princeton, six "runs" to four, in the first intercollegiate [[football]] game ever played (the site, then a field, is now occupied by the College Avenue Gymnasium). Instead of wearing uniforms, the players stripped off their hats, coats, and vests and bound their suspenders around the waistbands of their trousers. For headgear, the Rutgers team wound their scarlet scarves into turbans atop their heads. This led to the College later adopting scarlet as its school color. The rules, more resembling those of English [[rugby]] than what developed into American football, included limiting each team to 25 men on the field at once and banning throwing ''or running with the ball''. Rutgers got [[Columbia University]] started in the grid sport the following season and in a few years most of the East's colleges and universities were represented on the gridiron.
  245. The Rutgers University mascot is the Scarlet Knight.
  246. Howard Fullerton, a member of the [[Order of the Bull's Blood]], goes down in history not only for his penning the alma mater but for allegedly inspiring the theft of a cannon from the campus of [[Princeton University]] on [[25 April]] [[1875]], an event—and the ensuing debate between the two university presidents—reported in nationwide newspapers. Princeton students retaliated by raiding the Rutgers Armory and stealing a few muskets. Eventually the committee appointed by the two colleges recommended the return the stolen items to their owners before the event. When the cannon was returned, Princeton University officials ordered it buried in the ground, encased in cement, with only a few feet of the butt end exposed above ground.
  247. * The College Avenue Gymnasium, built on the site where the first college football game was played, hosted [[New Jersey|New Jersey's]] 1947 and 1966 Constitutional Conventions.
  248. * In [[1810]], a book of 104 rules and regulations are published to guide student down a moral path. Among these rules were prohibitions on dancing and fencing schools, billiards, cards, dice, beer and oyster houses, firearms, powder, and public ball alleys; and further, no student was to "disguise himself for the purpose of imposition or amusement," "speak upon the public stage anything indecent, profane, or immoral," or "employ a barber on the Lord's day to dress his head or shave him."
  249. * In [[1879]], [[Mark Twain]], the famed American author, accepted an honorary membership into the Philoclean Society at Rutgers, but failed to make the customary monetary contribution.
  250. * In addition to being the "birthplace of college football," Rutgers has given birth to discoveries and innovations such as [[Cheez-Whiz]], water-soluble sustained release polymers, [[Tetraploids]], robotic hands, [[artificial bovine insemination]], and developed the ceramic tiles for the heat shield on the [[Space Shuttle]].
  251. * The Rutgers Centurion - a conservative publication.
  252. The ''[[alma mater]]'' of Rutgers University is the song entitled ''On the Banks of the Old Raritan'', written by Howard Fullerton (Class of [[1872]]). The lyrics to the song are, as follows:
  253. : My father sent me to old Rutgers,
  254. : And resolv'd that I should be a man;
  255. : On the banks of the old Raritan.
  256. : On the banks of the old Raritan, my boys,
  257. : where old Rutgers ever more shall stand,
  258. : For has she not stood since the time of the flood,
  259. : On the banks of the old Raritan.
  260. : Then sing aloud to Alma Mater,
  261. : And keep the scarlet in the van;
  262. : On the banks of the old Raritan.
  263. : *'''N.B.''': ''The phrase "my boys" in the first line of the chorus has been changed to "my friends" in light of Rutgers being [[coeducation|coeducational]] since [[1970]].''
  264. Howard Fullerton, a member of the [[Order of the Bull's Blood]], goes down in Rutgers history not only for his penning the ''alma mater'' but for allegedly inspiring the theft of a cannon from the campus of [[Princeton University]] on [[25 April]] [[1875]], an event—and the ensuing debate between the two university presidents—reported in nationwide newspapers. Princeton students retaliated by raiding the Rutgers Armory and stealing a few muskets. Eventually the committee appointed by the two colleges recommended the return the stolen items to their owners before the event. When the cannon was returned, Princeton University officials ordered it buried in the ground, encased in cement, with only a few feet of the butt end exposed above ground.
  265. * [[Leonid Khachiyan]] — Professor of Mathematics
  266. * [[Saharon Shelah]] — Professor of Mathematics
  267. * [[Endre Szemeredi]] — Professor of Mathematics

GreengageEdit

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University of NewarkEdit

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Edmund PlowdenEdit

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  1. Upon the accession of the Catholic [[Queen Mary]], Plowden was appointed one of the Council of the Marches (of [[Wales]]). In [[1553]], he was elected Member of Parliament for [[Wallingford]] (then in [[Berkshire]] now in [[Oxfordshire]]), followed, the next year, by the same office for both [[Reading,_England|Reading]] in [[Berkshire]] and [[Wootton Bassett]] in [[Wiltshire]]. The unusual breadth of his religious views were shown early in his career when he, however, withdrew from the House, on [[12 January]] [[1555]], because he disapproved of the proceedings there.
  2. Plowden was remarkable in remaining, unscathed, a staunch Roman Catholic during the full tide of Protestant militancy in Elizabeth's reign. He sought to assisted those of his faith being oppressed by the Crown, including his famed defense of [[Robert Horne]], [[Bishop of Winchester]]. On one occasion, while defending a gentleman charged with hearing Mass, he worked out that the service had been performed by a layman for the sole purpose of informing against those present, and exclaimed, "The case is altered; no priest, no Mass", and thus secured an acquittal. This incident has given rise to a common legal proverb: "The case is altered, quoth Plowden".
  3. Plowden died on [[6 February]] [[1585]], in London and was entombed in the Temple Church. Several of Plowden's manuscripts, commentaries, and legal opinions are preserved in the [[British Museum]] and in the libraries of the [[University of Cambridge]].

Leonid KhachiyanEdit

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  1. [[Category:Rutgers University]]

The Red ViolinEdit

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  1. '''''The Red Violin''''' ([[French language|Fr]]: '''''Le Violon Rouge''''') is a [[Canada|Canadian]] [[film]]; released in the [[United States|USA]], on [[June 11]], [[1999]]. The film received an [[Academy Award]] ([[John Corigliano]] -- music), 8 [[Genie Award]]s, 9 [[Jutra Award]]s, a [[Golden Reel Award]] (for [[sound editing]]), and a [[Best Artistic Contribution Award]] from the [[Tokyo International Film Festival]]. The film is notable in that [[dialogue]] is spoken in the [[language]] appropriate to each [[setting]], with [[subtitle]]s. It was the first film since [[Grand Illusion]] ([[1937]]), directed by [[Jean Renoir]], to have dialogue in four languages.

Albert AnastasiaEdit

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  1. '''Albert Anastasia''' ([[February 26]] [[1902]] - [[October 25]], [[1957]]), also known as the "Mad Hatter" and "Lord High Executioner", was an an [[United States|American]] [[mafia|mafioso]] best known for running the contract killing syndicate [[Murder, Inc.]].
  2. Anastasia was born Umberto Anastasio in [[Tropea]], [[Italy]]--one of nine brothers--and moved to [[New York City]] around [[1919]]. He became active in Brooklyn's dock operations and rose to a position of authority in the longshoreman's union. It was here that Anastasia first demonstrated his penchant for murder at the slightest provocation, killing a fellow longshoreman in the early '20s--an offense which led to an 18-month sentence he served at the famed [[Sing Sing]] Prison.
  3. Early in his organized crime career, Anastasia served in a gang led by [[Joe Masseria|Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria]]. Anastastia was always a devoted follower of others, primarily [[Lucky Luciano]]Charles "Lucky" Luciano]] and [[Frank Costello]]. His devotion to Luciano knew no bounds.
  4. In 1930, Luciano finalized plans to take over crime in America by destroying the two old-line Mafia factions headed by Masseria and [[Salvatore Maranzano]], he outlined his plot to Anastasia. Anastasia joined Luciano, and [[Bugsy Siegel]] in the plot, assuring Luciano that he would kill everyone for him to be on top. Anastasia was hungry for power and knew that if Luciano were head of the National Crime Syndicate (also known as the "Commission") that he would eventually get a piece of the action. Anastasia was personally part of the four-man death squad that mowed down Masseria in Nuova Villa Tammaro, a [[Coney Island]] restaurant, on [[15 April]] [[1931]] during the [[Castellammarese War]].
  5. With Luciano practically in control of nationwide organized crime, he quickly placed Anastasia in a position of power. It was not surprising that Anastasia and [[Louis Buchalter|Louis "Lepke" Buchalter]], the nation's leading labor racketeer, were installed as the operating heads of the national crime syndicate's enforcement arm, [[Murder Inc.|Murder, Incorporated]]. Murder, Inc. was a group of mainly Jewish killers out of the back room of the Brownsville candy store, Midnight Rose's. Some estimates have it that Murder, Inc., may have taken in a decade of operation a toll estimated between 400 and 700 victims. Many of these murders remain unsolved. Unlike Lepke and many other members of Murder, Inc., Anastasia was never prosecuted for any of the crimes. There was a perfect case against him, but the main prosecution witness not surprisingly disappeared.
  6. During World War II Anastasia appeared to have been the originator of a plan to free Luciano from prison by winning him a pardon for "helping the war effort." To accomplish the goal, Anastasia set out to create problems on the New York waterfront so the Navy would agree to any kind of deal to stop sabotage. The French luxury liner [[S.S. Normandie]], in the process of being converted into a troopship, burned and capsized in New York harbor. Anastasia was credited with ordering his brother, Tough Tony Anastasio, to carry out the sabotage. Afterward, a deal was made for Luciano to get lighter treatment in prison, and Anastasia was informed to cease waterfront troubles.
  7. Anastasia's violent ways could be contained as long as Luciano and Costello pulled the strings. In 1951 Costello may well have been the prime mover in Anastasia's rise to boss of the Mangano (later Gambino) crime family in which he was technically an underling. Through the years, boss Vincent Mangano had fumed at Anastasia's closeness to Luciano, Costello, Adonis and others and that they used him without first seeking Mangano's approval. Frequently Mangano and Anastasia almost came to blow over family affairs, and it was considered only a matter of time until one or the other was killed. In 1951, Vincent's brother, Phil Mangano, was murdered and Vincent himself became another in Anastasia's legion of the permanently missing. Anastasia then claimed control of the Family with Costello's active support. At a meeting of all the bosses of New York families, Costello backed up Anastasia's claim that Mangano was planning to kill Anastasia and that Albert had a right to act in self-defense. Faced with a fait accompli the other bosses could do nothing but accept Anastasia's elevation.
  8. In appears Costello had other motivation for wanting Anastasia in control of the crime family. Costello at the time was facing a concentrated challenge from [[Vito Genovese]] for control of the Luciano family now that Luciano was in exile. Until 1951, Costello had depended for muscle on New Jersey crime family boss [[Willie Moretti]], but Moretti was in the process of losing his mind and would soon be a rubout in a mercy killing by the mob. That meant Costello needed new muscle and Anastasia, with a family of gunmen behind him, would make a strong foil to Genovese.
  9. Unfortunately, as a crime boss Anastasia turned even more kill-crazy than ever. In 1952 he even ordered the murder of young Brooklyn salesman named Arnold Schuster after watching Schuster bragging on television about his role as primary witness in bank robber Willie Sutton's arrest. "I can't stand squealers!" Anastasia raged to his men. "Hit that guy!"
  10. In killing Schuster, Anastasia had violated a cardinal crime syndicate rule which ran, as [[Bugsy Siegel]] once quaintly put it, "We only kill each other." Outsiders - prosecutors, reporters, the public in general - were not to be killed. Members of the general public could only be hit if the very life of the organization or some of its top leaders were threatened. This certainly was not the case with Arnold Schuster, a man whose killing generated much heat on the mob. Like other members of the syndicate, even Luciano in Italy and Costello were horrified, but they could not disavow Anastasia because they needed him to counter Genovese's growing ambitions and power. Genovese cunningly used Anastasia's kill-crazy behavior against him, wooing supporters away from Anastasia on that basis. Secretly, over a few years time Genovese won the cooperation of Anastasia's underboss, [[Carlo Gambino]].
  11. Still, Genovese dared not move against Anastasia and his real target, Costello, because of [[Meyer Lansky]], the highest-ranking and most powerful member of the national syndicate. Normally, Lansky would not have supported Genovese under any circumstances, their dislike for each other going back to the 1920s. But in recent years Lansky was riding high as the king of casino gambling in Cuba, cutting in other syndicate bosses for lesser shares. When Anastasia leaned on him for a piece of the action, Lansky refused. So Anastasia started working on plans to bring his own gambling setup into Cuba. That was not something Lansky took lightly. Anyone messing with his gambling empire went. That applied to Lansky's good friend Bugsy Siegel and it certainly applied to Anastasia. Up until then Lansky had preferred to let Anastasia and Genovese bleed each other to death, but now he gave his approval to the former's eradication.
  12. Anastasia's rubout was carried out with an efficiency that the former lord high executioner of Murder, Inc., would have approved. On the morning of [[October 25]], [[1957]], Anastasia entered the barbershop of the [[Park Sheraton Hotel]] (now the [[Park Central Hotel]], on 56th Street and 7th Avenue) in [[New York City]]. Anastasia's bodyguard parked the car in an underground garage and then most conveniently decided to take a little stroll. Anastasia relaxed in the barber chair, closing his eyes. Suddenly two men, scarves covering their faces, marched in.
  13. The pair moved on Anastasia's chair, shoving the attending barber out of the way. Anastasia still did not open his eyes. Both men shot Anastasia, who after their first volley jumped to his feet. Anastasia lunged at his killers or what he thought were his killers, trying to get them with his bare bands. Actually he attacked their reflection in the mirror. It took several more shots to drop him, but he finally fell to the floor dead.
  14. Like virtually all gang killings, the Anastasia murder remains unsolved. It is known, though, that the contract was given to [[Joe Profaci]] who passed it on to the three homicidal Gallo brothers from Brooklyn.
  15. The double-dealing did not cease with Anastasia's death. Gambino now secretly deserted Genovese and joined with Lansky, Luciano and Costello in a plot that would entrap Genovese in a narcotics conviction and send him away to prison for the rest of his life. In that sense Anastasia was avenged, but it was not with the abrupt finality that the kill-crazy executioner would likely have preferred.
  16. '''Albert Anastasia''' ([[February 26]] [[1902]] - [[October 25]], [[1957]]), also known as the "Mad Hatter" and "Lord High Executioner", was an a [[Mafia]] boss remembered for running the contract killing syndicate known as [[Murder, Inc.]].
  17. After the arrest and execution of Buchalter in 1944, Anastasia became the leader of Murder, Inc.

La Grande IllusionEdit

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  1. '''''La Grande Illusion''''' is a [[1937]] [[film]] by renown director [[Jean Renoir]] ([[1894]]-[[1979]])—son of artist [[Pierre-Auguste Renoir]]—and is regarded by critics and film historians as one of the masterpieces of [[Cinema of France|French cinema]]. The screenplay was written by [[Jean Renoir|Renoir]] and [[Charles Spaak]].
  2. In English-speaking countries, the film was released as '''''Grand Illusion.'''''
  3. ==Brief history of the film==
  4. ''Grand Illusion'' was released in [[1937]] to much critical acclaim. Even as late as 1970, almost every credible list of the top ten best films in cinematic history included the film.
  5. In [[1938]], ''Grand Illusion'' was the first foreign language film nominated by the [[Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences]] for the [[Academy Award for Best Picture]] (often better known as [[Oscar]]). The film won as Best Foreign Film award at the [[New York Film Critics Circle Awards]] in [[1938]].
  6. After it won a prize at the [[Venice Film Festival]] in [[1937]], the [[Nazi Germany|Nazis]] declared the film "Cinematic Public Enemy Number One" and [[Joseph Goebbels]], Nazi Propaganda Minister, ordered the prints to be confiscated and destroyed.
  7. As the German Army marched into [[France]] in [[1940]] during the [[World War II]], the [[Nazi Germany|Nazis]] seized the prints and negative of the film, chiefly because of its anti-war message, and what were percieved as ideological criticisms pointed towards Germany on the eve of the Second World War. For many years, the negative was thought to have been destroyed in an Allied air raid in [[1942]], and prints of the film were only rediscovered in [[1958]]. Subsequent to its rediscovery, it was preserved and restored during the early 1960s and re-released.
  8. The original negative was captured by Russians as they occupied Berlin in [[1945]] and shipped to an archive in [[Moscow]]. Oddly enough, it returned to France in the 1960s, and sat unidentified in storage in [[Toulouse]] for over 30 years as no one thought the original negative survived. When discovered, in the 1990s, the original negative was restored and released as the inaugural [[DVD]] of the [[Criterion Collection]], and is regarded as the most precise edition of the film since its 1937 premiere.
  9. During the [[World War I|First World War]], two [[France|French]] aviators Captain de Boeldieu (played by [[Pierre Fresnay]]) and Lieutenant Maréchal ([[Jean Gabin]]), embark on a flight to examine the site of a blurred spot on photos from an earlier air reconnaissance mission. They are shot down by an aviator and German aristocrat, Captain von Rauffenstein ([[Erich von Stroheim]]). Von Rauffenstein, upon returning to base, states that he has shot down a French plane and instructs one of his subordinates to find out if the aviators are officers, and if so, invite them to lunch before dispatching them to a [[Prisoner of War|prisoner of war]] camp. During this scene we learn that von Rauffenstein and de Boeldieu know each other through acquaintances—a depiction of the familiarity, if not solidarity, within the upper class (i.e. the aristocracy) across the myriad of national boundaries in Europe leading up to the first World War.
  10. De Boeldieu and Maréchal are then placed in a [[Prisoner of War|prisoner of war]] camp, where they meet and befriend several of their fellow countrymen. Soon after their arrival, they participate in an attempt by their comrades to dig a tunnel underneath the camp as a means to escape. However, just before the tunnel is completed, they are forced to switch camps, and are unable to pass word of the tunnel to the incoming prisoners.
  11. During the course of the war, Boeldieu and Maréchal are placed in camp after camp, finally arriving in Wintersborn, a mountain fortress prison commanded by Von Rauffenstein who has since their last meeting been disabled in battle and reassigned. Wintersborn, it is alleged, is inescapable, but we soon learn that Boeldieu and Maréchal have a history of valiant escape attempts.
  12. At Wintersborn, Boeldieu and Maréchal meet one of their fellow prisoners from an earlier camp, Rosenthal ([[Marcel Dalio]]), a wealthy [[Judaism|Jew]]. The three together conspire their escape, coming across an idea by paying close attention to how the German guards respond to emergencies. Boeldieu concedes that their plan can only serve two, and suggests that Maréchal and Rosenthal escape, while he serves to draw the German guards' attention as they get away. After some commotion, the guards order an assembly of the prisoners in the fortress courtyard, and proceed to call the roll. When de Boeldieu's name is called he is not present in the assembly, and as they realize his absence, he makes his presence known high up in the fortress, drawing the German guards in pursuit. Maréchal and Rosenthal take the opportunity during the pursuit of de Boeldieu to lower themselves from a window by a home-made rope and flee.
  13. In the poignant sequence that follows, von Rauffenstein and his guards corner de Boeldieu, and von Rauffenstein pleads for him to give up. De Boeldieu refuses, and von Rauffenstein reluctantly shoots him. Nursed in his final moments by von Rauffenstein, de Boeldieu dies of his wounds expressing—in his last thoughts—a lament that their usefulness to society (as aristocrats) ends with this war, and that he has pity for von Rauffenstein who is left behind, alive, to find a purpose in this new, emerging social order.
  14. The film continues with the plight of the fugitives Maréchal and Rosenthal as they journey across the German countryside seeking a route back to France. Rosenthal gets injured, slowing up the duo, and the two men take refuge in the barn of a German woman, Elsa ([[Dita Parlo]]), who has been widowed by the war. She generously takes in the two men. Maréchal begins to fall in love with her, but he and Rosenthal must eventually leave for [[Switzerland]] (from there to [[France]] and return to the war), although Maréchal promises to come back if he survives. They depart. As the film closes, a squadron of German soldiers on patrol sight the two fugitives crossing a snow-covered valley. The soldiers fire a few volleys and miss, but are soon ordered to let Maréchal and Rosenthal go without incident, as they have apparently crossed the invisible Swiss border in the snow-covered valley below.
  15. ==Political and historical analysis==
  16. :[[Jean Gabin]] ''as'' Lieutenant Maréchal, a French officer
  17. :[[Erich von Stroheim]] ''as'' Captain von Rauffenstein, a German officer
  18. :[[Dita Parlo]] ''as'' Elsa, a widowed German farm woman
  19. :[[Pierre Fresnay]] ''as'' Captain de Boeldieu, a French officer
  20. :[[Marcel Dalio]] ''as'' Lieutenant Rosenthal, a French officer
  21. :[[Julien Carette]] ''as'' Cartier, the showoff
  22. :[[Werner Florian]] ''as'' Sgt. Arthur
  23. :[[Jean Dasté]] ''as'' a teacher
  24. :[[Sylvain Itkine]] ''as'' Lieutenant Demolder
  25. :[[Gaston Modot]] ''as'' an engineer
  26. Several members of the cast were not listed in the film's credits (as was common in early films) including:
  27. :[[Jacques Becker]] ''as'' an English officer
  28. * ''Grand Illusion'' is the only [[war film]] in history that does not show even a single scene depicting warfare.
  29. * [[Jean Renoir]] was an aviator for the French Army during [[World War I]], actor [[Jean Gabin]] (as Maréchal) wears Renoir's uniform in the film.
  30. * According to [[Jean Renoir|Renoir's]] memoirs, [[Erich von Stroheim]], despite being born in [[Vienna]], [[Austria]] (then the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]]) did not speak much [[German language|German]], and struggled learning the language along with his lines in between filming scenes.
  31. * As the first movie depicting an escape from a [[Prisoner of War|prisoner of war]] camp, scenes in ''Grand Illusion'' have influenced other films in the genre, especially influencing the digging of an escape tunnel in [[The Great Escape]] ([[1963]]).
  32. * Likewise, the scene of the French prisoners singing ''[[La Marseillaise]]''—the French National Anthem—to enrage their German prison guards, inspired a similar show of patriotic resistance in [[Casablanca]] ([[1942]]).
  33. * The dialogue in the ''Grand Illusion'' passes through four languages ([[French language|French]], [[German language|German]], [[English language|English]] and [[Russian language|Russian]]), and was the only feature film made in the Western Hemisphere to do so until ''[[The Red Violin]]'' ([[1999]]).
  34. * [[Cinema of France]]
  35. * [[List of French language films]]
  36. * [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0028950/ La Grande illusion] at the [www.imdb.com Internet Movie Database]
  37. * [http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/category=REVIEWS01&TITLESearch=Grand%20Illusion&ToDate=20041231 Roger Ebert's 1999 review of Grand Illusion]
  38. [[Category:1937 films|Grand illusion, La]]
  39. [[Category:French films|Grande illusion, La]]
  40. [[Category:World War I films|Grande illusion, La]]
  41. [[Category:War films|Grande illusion, La]]
  42. In [[1938]], ''Grand Illusion'' was the first foreign language film nominated by the [[Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences]] for the [[Academy Award for Best Picture]] (often better known as [[Oscar]]). The film won as Best Foreign Film award at the [[New York Film Critics Circle Awards]] and the [[National Board of Review]] in [[1938]].
  43. After it won a prize at the [[Venice Film Festival]] (for "Best Artistic Ensemble") in [[1937]], the [[Nazi Germany|Nazis]] declared the film "Cinematic Public Enemy Number One" and [[Joseph Goebbels]], Nazi Propaganda Minister, ordered the prints to be confiscated and destroyed.
  44. [[Image:Grandillusion_gabin.gif|thumb|275px|Jean Gabin as Lieutenant Maréchal]]
  45. In ''Grand Illusion'', director [[Jean Renoir]] paints a sharply critical view of the fate of [[Europe]] as it faces the rising spectre of [[fascism]] (especially in [[Nazi Germany]]) and the impending approach of the [[World War II|Second World War]] ([[1939]]-[[1945]]) and observes it through the eye of the [[World War I|First World War]] ([[1914]]-[[1918]]). However Renoir's critique of the [[politics]] and [[ideology]] does not descend into petty jingoism. Instead, he approaches the issue from the point of view of a universal humanity that transcends national borders and radical [[nationalism]].
  46. Renoir portrays these two aristocrats, de Boeldieu (Fresnay) and von Rauffenstein (von Stroheim), as men of [[Cosmopolitan Sensibility|cosmopolitan sensibility]], educated in many cultures and conversant in several language. Through their level of education—combined with their devotion to social conventions and rituals—they are distinguished from the characters representing segments of the lower classes. For instance, de Boeldieu and von Rauffenstein share similar social experiences, dining at Maxim's in Paris, courting dalliances with the same woman, and know of each other through acquaintances. They converse with each other in heavily formal [[French language|French]] and [[German langauge|German]], however in moments of intimately personal conversation, they escape into [[English language|English]] as if to hide these comments from their lower class counterparts. However, their kinship is never sentimental.
  47. Conversely, Maréchal (Gabin), who—it is revealed was a mechanic in [[Paris]]—is not as cultured, and later in the film is unable to communicate adequately with Elsa (Parlo) in German, and likewise she cannot speak French. Their kinship, in both in their class origins and culture, is through sentiment and experience.
  48. Both von Rauffenstein and de Boeldieu view their military service as a duty, and they see a purpose to the war. Renoir portrays the aristocrats von Rauffenstein and de Boeldieu as laudable, but tragic figures who are used to a world that is disappearing and are trapped in a code of life that is rapidly becoming meaningless. Both realize that their time is past, however, their ability to grasp this reality diverges: de Boeldieu accepts this fate as a positive improvement, von Rauffenstein doesn't, dismissively lamenting what he calls "charming legacy of the French Revolution." The new social order, lead by masses of men who were not born to privilege, invalidates the traditions to which Rauffenstein defiantly clings and de Boeldieu accepts, and likewise Renoir emphasizes and conveys that their class is no longer essential to their respective nation's politics.
  49. Renoir makes his message even clearer with the final events in the film, where Rosenthal and Maréchal, the common men, escape, but de Boeldieu, the aristocrat, does not. Von Rauffenstein is forced to shoot him (out of duty) which eventually leads to his death, an act that de Boeldieu admits he would would be compelled to do were the circumstances were reversed. However, in accepting his inevitable death, de Boeldieu takes comfort in the idea that ''"For a commoner, dying in a war is a tragedy. But for you and me, it's a good way out"'' and states that he has pity for von Rauffenstein as he is forced to find his purpose in the new social order of the world, where his traditions, experiences, and background are obsolete. These notions of honor, duty, and the purpose of the aristocrats to rule because of a notion of superiority are not shared by lower classes in Europe—the everyday men serving their countries thought of the war as a senseless political charade and became disillusioned. This view is best depicted in the film [[All Quiet on the Western Front]] (1930), based on a novel by [[Erich Maria Remarque]]
  50. Renoir briefly touches the question of [[anti-Semitism]] through the character of Rosenthal, a son from a newly wealthy (not aristocratic) banking family who happens to be Jewish (an obvious parallel to the [[Rothschild family]] in France). It is thought that Renoir sought to present a character to counter the rising anti-Jewish campaign enacted by [[Adolf Hitler|Adolf Hitler's]] goverment in [[Nazi Germany]]. Rosenthal is shown as a symbol of humanity across class lines, that though he may financially wealthy, he shares his food parcels with everyone so that he and his fellow prisoners are well fed—when compared with their German captors. Through Rosenthal, Renoir depicts a character that allows anti-Semitic criticisms to be rebuffed, that Jewish stereotypes are meaningless and that scapegoating as a result of such stereotypes is a ridiculous vagary.
  51. ''Grand Illusion'' is unique in that it is a [[war film]] that does not show one depiction of battle. Instead, the action of film is distanced from the action of war the use of setting (the isolation of a [[prisoner of war|prisoner of war camp]]) and allusion. This allows the message of the film to center around the human relationships on an individual level, instead of trying to extract a common experience in the age of the mass society.
  52. However, through these allusions, Renoir portrays [[war]] as a futile exercise of humanity. For instance, Elsa (Dita Parlo), the German widow, shows photos to Maréchal (Gabin) and Rosenthal (Dalio) of her husband and her brothers who were killed, respectively, at the battles of [[Verdun]], [[Liège]], [[Charleroi]], and [[Tannenberg]]. Ironically, these battles were some of Germany's most decisive victories in [[World War I]]. Through this device, Renoir refutes the notion that in this era of the masses, one common man cannot make an impact on a great event. This is shown in sharp contrast to the idealistic intention of Maréchal and Rosenthal in their escape—to return to the front, so that by returning to the fight they can help end this war.
  53. Lastly, Renoir seeks to refute the notion that war accomplishes anything, or that it can be used as a political tool (a notion expoused by [[Carl von Clausewitz]]) to solve problems and create a livable world.
  54. [[Image:Poster_grand_illusion_fr.jpg|thumb|400px|French Poster for Grand Illusion (1937), depicting actors Erich von Stroheim (as Capt. von Rauffenstein) and Pierre Fresnay (as Captain de Boeldieu)]]
  55. Through this film, Renoir conveys distinctly anti-war sentiments without resorting to a message that is too sentimental. As one of the many from the lower and working classes who had fought in [[World War I]], Renoir sought a resolution to the world crisis before the powers in Europe resorted to war. With World War I regarded as being a brutal, immense waste of human life for dubious—almost ridiculous—reasons, the lower classes that were now politically empowered after the fall of the old regimes and old social orders would seek any solution to avoid a repeat of the carnage and devastation seen in the first World War. It is in this regard that the role of Maréchal represents the political platform of the [[Front Populaire]] (an emerging bloc of left-wing political parties in France at the time this film was released).
  56. Through this film, Renoir focuses on the messages that there is a universality of mankind irrespective of ones national, ethnic, religious, economic, or social backgrounds, and that these common experiences should prevail above politics, and its extension: war.
  57. The best sentiment describing the message of the film, is from Jean Renoir himself, in an interview dating from the re-release of the film in the early 1960s:
  58. : [Grand Illusion is] ''"...a story about human relationships. I am sure that such a question is so important today that if we don’t solve it, we will just have to say ‘goodbye’ to our beautiful world."''
  59. * The title of the film (in French ''La Grande illusion'') comes from an essay called "The Great Illusion" by British economist [[Normal Angell]], who argued that war is futile because of the common economic interests of different nations. The title of Renoir's film is really more accurately translated to "The Great Illusion".

Augusta, New JerseyEdit

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  1. '''Augusta''' is a unincorporated hamlet located in [[Frankford Township, New Jersey|Frankford Township]], [[Sussex County, New Jersey|Sussex County]], [[New Jersey]].

Something AwfulEdit

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  1. '''This page has been listed for [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion]][[Template:Vfd|.]]'''<br />
  2. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it. [[Wikipedia:Alternative outlets|Here are some possible outlets for rejected articles.]]

Charlie YoungEdit

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  1. '''A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deleted]][[Template:Vfd|.]]'''<br>This request is being discussed to form a consensus whether the article meets Wikipedia standards. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for details. Also see [[Wikipedia:Alternative outlets|possible outlets for removed articles]]. If you feel deletion is not justified by Wikipedia [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] you may vote against its deletion. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to continue editing this article and improve it.

War filmEdit

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  1. *''[[Battle of Algiers]]'' (''La Battaglia di Algeri'')

ShropshireEdit

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  1. * [[Edmund Plowden]] (1518-1585)—legal scholar and theorist
  2. * [[Sir Edmund Plowden]] (1590-1659)—Proprietor, Earl Palatine and Governor of [[New Albion]]

Karl DönitzEdit

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  1. *Davidson, Eugene. ''The Trial of the Germans: Account of the Twenty-two Defendants Before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg''. 1997. ISBN 0826211399.
  2. *Hadley, Michael L. ''U-Boats Against Canada: German Submarines in Canadian Waters''. McGill-Queen's University Press: 1985. ISBN 0773508015. *Macintyre, Donald. ''U-boat Killer''. 1999. ISBN 0304352357.
  3. *Werner, Herbert A. ''Iron Coffins: A U-boat Commander's War, 1939-45''. 1999. ISBN 0304353302.
  4. *Prien, Gunther. ''Fortunes of War: U-boat Commander''. 2000. ISBN 0752420259.

J. Fred MuggsEdit

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  1. [[Image:j_fred_muggs-2.jpg|right|J. Fred Muggs]]
  2. [[Image:j_fred_muggs-5.jpg|left|J. Fred Muggs]]

A River Runs Through It (novel)Edit

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  1. '''''A River Runs Through It''''' is a semi-autobiographical novella by [[Norman Maclean]] (1902-1990). In 1992 [[Robert Redford]] directed a film of the same name based on the novella.

Castellammarese WarEdit

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  1. The name is derived from the fact that one side in the conflict consisted, at least at first, of immigrants sent by powerful [[Sicily|Sicilian]] mafioso [[Don Vito Cascio Ferro]] from the vicinity of the town of [[Castellammare del Golfo]] in western [[Sicily]], including [[Joseph Bonanno]], [[Stefano Magaddino]], [[Joseph Profaci]], [[Joseph Aiello]], and the faction's leader, [[Salvatore Maranzano]]. Their adversaries, who hailed both from elsewhere in [[Sicily]] and adjacent of regions of southern [[Italy]] such as [[Calabria]] and [[Campania]] (particularly [[Naples]]) were led by [[Joe Masseria|Joe "The Boss" Masseria]] and also included [[Al Capone]], [[Lucky Luciano]], [[Albert Anastasia]], [[Vito Genovese]], [[Willie Moretti]], [[Joe Adonis]], and [[Frank Costello]].
  2. Following the death of Aiello, however, the tide of the war rapidly turned in the Maranzano faction's favor (a key member of Masseria's gang, [[Stefano Ferrigno]], was murdered, along with Alfred Mineo, on [[November 5]], [[1930]]) and members of Masseria's gang began to switch sides, rendering the original battle lines of the conflict (Castellammarese versus non-Castellammarese) meaningless. After another important Masseria lieutenant, [[Joseph Catania]], was gunned down on [[February 3]], [[1931]] (he died two days later), Luciano and Genovese agreed to betray Masseria if Maranzano would end the conflict thereafter - and on [[April 15]], [[1931]], Masseria was killed while eating dinner at Nuova Villa Tammaro, a restaurant in the [[Coney Island]] section of [[Brooklyn]].

Avery BrooksEdit

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  1. [[Category:Rutgers University]]

List of American novelistsEdit

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  1. *[[Norman Maclean]], author of ''[[A River Runs Through It]]''

Stephen BronnerEdit

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  1. '''Stephen Eric Bronner''' (born: [[19 August]] [[1949]], in [[New York City]], [[New York]]) Professor (II) of [[Political Science]], [[Comparative Literature]] and [[German Studies]] at [[Rutgers University]] in [[New Brunswick, New Jersey]]. He earned a [[BA]] at [[City College of New York]], and a [[Ph.D.]] from the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. A contributor to many scholarly journals, including ''New Politics'', Bronner has edited and written several books in the fields of contemporary [[political theory]], [[history]] and [[culture]] and is the winner of the Michael A. Harrington Prize for his 1991 book, ''Moments of Decision: Political History and the Crises of Radicalism''.
  2. [[Category:Rutgers University]]
  3. [[Category:1949 births|Bronner, Stephen]]
  4. '''Stephen Eric Bronner''' is a Professor (II) of [[Political science|Political Science]], [[Comparative literature|Comparative Literature]] and [[German|German Studies]] at [[Rutgers University]] in [[New Brunswick, New Jersey|New Brunswick]], [[New Jersey]], [[United States of America|USA]].
  5. Born in [[New York City]], [[New York]], [[United States|USA]] on [[19 August]] [[1949]], Bronner earned a [[Bachelor of Arts]] ([[Bachelor of Arts|B.A.]]) at [[City College of New York]], spent a year at the [[University of Tubingen|Universität Tübingen]] on a [[Fulbright-Hays Fellowship]] in [[1973]], and completed his [[Master of Arts]] ([[Master of Arts|M.A.]]) and [[Doctor of Philosophy]] ([[Doctor of Philosophy|Ph.D.]]) from the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. He has been employed at [[Rutgers University]] since [[1976]], and has held visiting professor positions at the [[New School for Social Research]] ([[1989]]), and most recently at the [[Universität Leipzig]] ([[1998]]).
  6. A contributor to many scholarly journals, including ''New Politics'', ''Political Theory'', ''Social Research'' and ''Telos'', Bronner has edited and written several books in the fields of contemporary [[political theory]], [[history]] and [[culture]] and is the winner of the Michael A. Harrington Prize for his 1991 book, ''Moments of Decision: Political History and the Crises of Radicalism''.
  7. He currently is the Senior Editor of ''[[Logos: A Journal of Modern Society and Culture]]'', and on the editorial boards of the journals ''New Political Science'', ''X-Alta'' ([[France]]) and ''Eszmelet'' ([[Hungary]]).
  8. * ''Sketch for a New Critical Theory'' (Zurich: Diaphanes Verlag, publication pending)
  9. * ''Reclaiming the Enlightenment: Toward a Politics of Radical Engagement'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). ISBN 0231126085
  10. * ''A Rumor about the Jews: Anti-Semitism. Conspiracy, and the Protocols of Zion'' (''Paperback Edition''–New York: Oxford University Press, 2004; ''Hardcover Edition''–New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000; Translation into German–Berlin: Propylaen Verlag, 2000). ISBN 0195169565
  11. * ''Imagining the Possible: Radical Politics for Conservative Times'' (New York: Routledge, 2002). ISBN 0415932602
  12. * ''Of Critical Theory and Its Theorists'' (2nd Edition–New York: Routledge, 2002; 1st Edition–London: Basil Blackwell, 1994; Translation into Portuguese–Rio de Janiero: Papirus, 1997). ISBN 0415932637
  13. * ''Socialism Unbound'' (2nd Edition:–Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000; 1st edition–New York: Routledge, 1990). ISBN 081336776X
  14. * ''Ideas in Action: Political Tradition in the Twentieth Century'' (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999; Translation into Korean–Seoul, Korea: Ingansarang Publishers, 2003). ISBN 0847693872
  15. * ''Camus: Portrait of a Moralist'' (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999; Translation into German–Berlin: Verlag Vorwerk 8, 2002). ISBN 0816632839
  16. * ''Moments of Decision: Political History and the Crises of Radicalism'' (New York: Routledge, 1992; Translation into German–Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 2000). ISBN 041590465X
  17. * ''Rosa Luxemburg: A Revolutionary for Our Times'' (3rd printing– Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997; 2nd printing–New York: Columbia University Press, 1987; 1st printing–London: Pluto Press, 1980). ISBN 0271025050
  18. * ''Albert Camus: The Thinker, The Artist, The Man'' (New York: Franklin Watts, 1996). ISBN 0531113051
  19. * ''Leon Blum'' (New York: Chelsea House Publishing Co., 1986). ISBN 0877545111
  20. * ''A Beggar’s Tales'' (New York: Pella Press, 1978).
  21. * ''Planetary Politics: Human Rights, Terror, and Global Society'' (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, publication pending).
  22. * ''Twentieth Century Political Theory: A Reader'' (Revised 2nd Edition–New York: Routledge, publication pending 2004; 1st Edition, 1996). ISBN 0415948991
  23. * ''Re-Framing the International: Law, Politics and Culture'', co-edited with Lester Edwin J. Ruiz and R. B. J. Walker (Editor (New York: Routledge, 2002). ISBN 0415931754
  24. * ''Vienna: The World of Yesterday 1889-1914'', co-edited with F. Peter Wagner, (Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1997). ISBN 0391039873
  25. * ''Television and the Crisis of Democracy'', co-edited with Douglas Kellner (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990). ISBN 0813305497
  26. * ''The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg'', edited, translated, and with an introduction (2nd edition–Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1993; 1st edition–Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979). ISBN 1573925810
  27. * ''Critical Theory and Society'', co-edited with Douglas Kellner,(New York: Routledge, 1989). ISBN 0415900417
  28. * ''Socialism in History: Political Essays of Henry Patcher'' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984). ISBN 0231056605
  29. * ''Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage'' co-edited with Douglas Kellner (2nd printing–New York: Columbia University Press, 1988; 1st printing– South Hadley, Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey; New York: Universe Books; and London: Croom Helm, 1983). ISBN 0876633564
  30. * ''Polemics'' (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield).
  31. * ''Interventions: Social Theory and Contemporary Politics'' (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press).

Norman macleanEdit

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  1. #REDIRECT [[Norman Maclean]]

List of Colonial CollegesEdit

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  1. |-
  2. |[[Harvard University]]<br>then ''New College''
  3. |[[Massachusetts Bay Colony|Massachusetts Bay]]
  4. |[[Puritan]]
  5. |-
  6. |[[College of William and Mary]]
  7. |-
  8. |[[Yale University]]
  9. |[[Puritan]] ([[Congregational]])
  10. |-
  11. |[[Princeton University]]<br>then the ''College of New Jersey''
  12. |[[New Jersey]]
  13. |[[Presbyterian]]
  14. |-
  15. |[[University of Pennsylvania]]<br>as the ''Charity School of Philadelphia''
  16. |Non-sectarian
  17. |-
  18. |[[Columbia University]]<br>then ''Kings College''
  19. |[[New York]]
  20. |-
  21. |[[Brown University]]<br>then ''Rhode Island College''
  22. |[[Baptist]]
  23. |-
  24. |[[Rutgers University]]<br>then ''Queens College''
  25. |[[New Jersey]]
  26. |[[Dutch Reformed Church|Dutch Reformed]]
  27. |-
  28. |[[Dartmouth College]]
  29. |[[New Hampshire]]
  30. |[[Puritan]]
  31. |}
  32. Today, seven of these nine colleges form what is known as the [[Ivy League]]. These seven are: [[Harvard University|Harvard]], [[Yale University|Yale]], [[Princeton University|Princeton]], [[University of Pennsylvania|UPenn]], [[Columbia University|Columbia]], [[Brown University|Brown]] and [[Dartmouth College|Dartmouth]].
  33. Conversely, the two colleges with colonial origins not in the [[Ivy League]] are the [[College of William and Mary]] (today a small public [[liberal arts]] college) and [[Rutgers University]] (today the state university of New Jersey).
  34. * + The [[University of Pennsylvania]] was established in [[1749]], continuing the work of the ''Charity School of Philadelphia'' which was established in [[1740]].
  35. * ++ [[Dartmouth College]] was established in 1769, succeeding ''Moor's Charity School'' which was established in [[1754]].

Crandon Lakes, New JerseyEdit

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  1. '''Crandon Lakes''' is a residential development located in [[Hampton Township, New Jersey|Hampton Township]] [[Sussex County, New Jersey|Sussex County]], [[New Jersey]]. As of the [[2000]] census, the town had a total population of 1,180.
  2. '''Crandon Lakes''' is a residential development located in [[Hampton Township, New Jersey|Hampton Township]] [[Sussex County, New Jersey|Sussex County]], [[New Jersey]]. As of the [[2000]] census, the residential development had a total population of 1,180.

Norman McleanEdit

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  1. #REDIRECT [[Norman Maclean]]

Jennifer Government: NationStatesEdit

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  1. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it. [[Wikipedia:Alternative outlets|Here are some possible outlets for rejected articles.]]

Sussex County, New JerseyEdit

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  1. Sussex County was established by an order of [[Jonathan Belcher]] ([[1681]]-[[1757]]), [[Governor of New Jersey|Royal Governor of New Jersey]] on [[8 June]] [[1753]].
  2. ===Incorporated Municipalities within Sussex County===
  3. * [[Andover Township, New Jersey|Andover Township]]
  4. * [[Andover, New Jersey|Andover Borough]]
  5. * [[Branchville, New Jersey|Branchville Borough]]
  6. * [[Byram Township, New Jersey|Byram Township]]
  7. * [[Frankford Township, New Jersey|Frankford Township]]
  8. * [[Franklin, New Jersey|Franklin Borough]]
  9. * [[Fredon Township, New Jersey|Fredon Township]]
  10. * [[Green Township, New Jersey|Green Township]]
  11. * [[Hamburg, New Jersey|Hamburg Borough]]
  12. * [[Hampton Township, New Jersey|Hampton Township]]
  13. * [[Hardyston Township, New Jersey|Hardyston Township]]
  14. * [[Hopatcong, New Jersey|Hopatcong Borough]]
  15. * [[Lafayette Township, New Jersey|Lafayette Township]]
  16. * [[Montague Township, New Jersey|Montague Township]]
  17. * [[Newton, New Jersey|Newton]] (Town of)
  18. * [[Ogdensburg, New Jersey|Ogdensburg Borough]]
  19. * [[Sandyston Township, New Jersey|Sandyston Township]]
  20. * [[Sparta Township, New Jersey|Sparta Township]]
  21. * [[Stanhope, New Jersey|Stanhope Borough]]
  22. * [[Stillwater Township, New Jersey|Stillwater Township]]
  23. * [[Sussex, New Jersey|Sussex Borough]]
  24. * [[Vernon Township, New Jersey|Vernon Township]]
  25. * [[Walpack Township, New Jersey|Walpack Township]]
  26. * [[Wantage Township, New Jersey|Wantage Township]]
  27. * [http://www.sussex.nj.us Sussex County webpage].
  28. * [http://www.sussex.edu Sussex County Community College]
  29. * [http://www.sussexcountyhistory.org Sussex County Historical Society]

Order of the Bull's Blood (hoax)Edit

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  1. [[Category:Rutgers University]]

NeopetsEdit

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  1. '''This page has been listed for [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion]][[Template:Vfd|.]]'''<br />
  2. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it.

Jerry FodorEdit

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  1. [[Category:Rutgers University]]

New AlbionEdit

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  1. '''New Albion''' was the name given twice to areas in [[North America]]. The first, in [[1579]], to an area on the [[Pacific Ocean|Pacific]] coast near modern-day [[Whale Cove, Oregon|Whale Cove]] in [[Oregon]], by [[Francis Drake|Sir Francis Drake]] ([[1545]]–[[1596]]). The second was to an area of modern-day [[New Jersey]], [[Pennsylvania]] and [[Maryland]] in the [[United States of America|United States]] where colonization was unsuccessfully attempted under [[Sir Edmund Plowden]] under the authority of a charter granted by [[Charles I]] in [[1634]].
  2. [[Image:FrancisDrake.jpg|thumb|145px|Sir Francis Drake [[1545]]–[[1596]].]]
  3. During his famed [[circumnavigation]] of the globe ([[1577]]–[[1580]]) in which he was ordered to destroy the [[Spain|Spanish]] flotillas in the [[New World]] and plunder settlements, [[Francis Drake|Sir Francis Drake]] landed on the western coast of [[North America]] and claimed the area for [[Elizabeth I of England|Queen Elizabeth I]] as [[New Albion]]. While historians continue to dispute the exact location of his landing, new evidence suggests that it was in present-day [[Whale Cove, Oregon|Whale Cove]], [[Oregon]].
  4. The western coast of [[North America]] had partially been explored in [[1542]] by [[Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo]] who sailed for the [[Spain]], but as [[England]] was in conflict with Spain and there were no existing Spanish claims yet on the land, Drake decided the area could be claimed.
  5. Upon his return to England on [[4 April]] [[1581]], Francis Drake was knighted by [[Elizabeth I of England|Queen Elizabeth I]] for his deeds against the Spanish during the circumnavigational voyage. However, in order to keep an uneasy peace with Spain, and to avoid having Spain threaten England's claims in the New World, Drake's logs, charts, and other writings were confiscated. Thus, the discovery and claim on New Albion was ordered by the Queen to be considered a state secret. Drake and his crew were sworn to silence on pain of death. Only decade later, after the English forces destroyed the [[Spanish Armada]] in [[1588]] (in which Drake played a significant role), did Queen Elizabeth allow an official account of Drake's voyage by Richard Hakluyt to be published—though with many of the details obfuscated.
  6. However, Drake was always uneasy with the misrepresentations in the "official" account, and in 1592, he wrote Queen Elizabeth in reference to "the certain truth concealed, as I have thought it necessary myself." and requesting that the account be rewritten accordingly. The Queen denied his request.
  7. [[Image:Drake_newalbion_map.gif|thumb|150px|Map Detail of New Albion, c. 1603]]
  8. After Elizabeth's death, maps began to mark the area of North America above [[New Spain]] and New Mexico as ''Nova Albion,'' although the boundaries and locations greatly differ among maps. However, Drake's claiming land on the Pacific coast became the legal basis for subsequent colonial charters granted by English monarchs that claimed lands from "sea to sea" (i.e. from the Atlantic where English colonies were first settled, to the Pacific). However, despite these claims, the English did not establish a colonial presence on the west coast of North America until the [[19th century]] in the [[Oregon Country]].
  9. [[Whale Cove, Oregon]] lies just one mile north of Cape Foulweather where Captain Cook first sighted the American coast two centuries later. He described it in his log, with unknowing accuracy, as "the long-looked for coast of New Albion". Cook sailed on to Friendly Cove on Vancouver Island, to be given credit for discovering western Canada, credit that rightly belonged to Sir Francis Drake.
  10. ==An Account of Drake's Landing==
  11. The following is an excerpt of an account by Francis Pretty, which can be found in its entirety in the article, [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1580Pretty-drake.html Modern History Sourcebook: Francis Pretty: Sir Francis Drake's Famous Voyage Round the World, 1580]
  12. [[Image:Covemap1.gif|thumb|200px|Location of Whale Cove, Oregon]]
  13. Pretty's description of some of the animals in the area as looking like ''strange kind of Conies'' with ''the tail of a Rat, being of great length'' suggest that of a [[muskrat]], which is further evidence to the connection between Drake's landing and Whale Cove, as muskrats are found in Oregon, and not in California.
  14. ==Lord Plowden and New Albion: 1634==
  15. * [http://www.whalecove.com/drake.html Sir Francis Drake's Lost Harbor found at Whale Cove]

Television Without PityEdit

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  1. '''This page has been listed for [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion]][[Template:Vfd|.]]'''<br />
  2. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it.

Drew UniversityEdit

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  1. name=Drew University|
  2. ('Freely have you received, freely give —[[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew 10:8]]')|
  3. type=Private University|
  4. head=[[Thomas H. Kean]]|
  5. city=[[Madison, New Jersey|Madison]]|
  6. faculty=155|
  7. free=15 sports teams|
  8. homepage=[http://www.drew.edu/ www.drew.edu]|
  9. image=[[Image:DrewSeal.gif|Drew University Seal]]|
  10. '''Drew University''' is a small, private [[university]] located in [[Madison, New Jersey|Madison]], [[New Jersey]].
  11. Originally established as the Drew Theological Seminary in [[1867]], the university later expaned to include an undergraduate [[liberal arts]] curriculum in [[1928]] and commenced a program of graduate studies in [[1955]]. Nicknamed the "University in the Forest" because of the relative serenity of its 186 wooded acres to the school's suburban surroundings, Drew University currently has 1536 undergraduate and 882 graduate students.
  12. While Drew is loosely affiliated with the [[United Methodist Church]], it makes no religious demands on its students.
  13. [[Image:Drew_meadhall.jpg|thumb|300px|Mead Hall, formerly the estate of Daniel Drew, built in 1836, houses the University administration and classrooms.]]
  14. In, [[1867]], [[Daniel Drew]] ([[1797]]-[[1879]]), a [[financier]] and [[railroad]] [[tycoon]], endowed his [[antebellum]] estate in Madison for the purpose of establishing the [[Drew Theological Seminary]]. To this day, the Theological Seminary continues to graduate candidates for service in the ministry, however, the institution grew to include a [[liberal arts]] curriculum.
  15. The College admitted its first class of 12 students in [[1928]], after the trustees of the Drew Theological Seminary voted to accept a gift of $1.5 million from [[Arthur Baldwin|Arthur]] and [[Leonard Baldwin]] to build and endow a College, and to change the name of the institution to Drew University. In [[1955]], a Graduate School became the third of the university's degree granting entities.
  16. From its beginnings, the College has honored its founders' wish that it be ecumenical in its choice of faculty and students. The Baldwins also asked that the new institution be named ''Brothers College'' in recognition of their extra ordinary relationship. The name was later changed to the ''College of Liberal Arts'', but its major academic building still bears the College's original name.
  17. In its early years, Drew provided educational opportunities for women, through enrollment in religious classes. However, for a brief time, Drew became an all-male institution, during the 1930's until [[1942]].
  18. During the [[Second World War]], the draft threatened to take too many of Drew's students and the college of liberal arts responded by enrolling both women and [[US Navy]] recruits, through a [[V-12]] program. At this time, Drew became [[coeducation|coeducational]].
  19. [[Image:Tkean.jpg|thumb|200px|Hon. Thomas H. Kean, President of Drew University and former Governor of New Jersey]]
  20. During the 1970's, the College also established, with generous assistance from the [[Mellon Foundation]], a now widely imitated freshman seminar program. It allows first-year students to participate, with faculty who also serve as their academic advisers, in intensive study of a topic of mutual interest.
  21. Interdisciplinary study became a focus of the curriculum as well, with the creation of majors in [[behavioral science|behavioral studies]], and [[Russian studies]], and minors in such fields as [[American studies]], [[arts administration]], [[business management]], and [[writing]].
  22. [[Thomas H. Kean]] (b. [[1935]]), former [[Governor of New Jersey]] ([[1982]]-[[1990]]) and Co-Chairman of the [[National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States]], is currently the President of Drew University, serving in this post since leaving the governor's office in [[1990]].
  23. During his tenure as president, Kean has succeeded in adding new faculty in [[African studies|African]], [[Asian Studies|Asian]], [[Russian studies|Russian]], and [[Middle Eastern Studies|Islamic studies]], significantly increased opportunities for students to study abroad, increased applications from prospective students, nearly tripled the school's endowment, and committed more than $60 million to construction of new buildings and renovation of older buildings—principally student residence halls.
  24. Drew University is home to the [[Shakespeare Theatre of New Jersey]], and the [[Methodist Archives]].
  25. ==Academics==
  26. Drew University offers programs leading to the traditional undergraduate degrees of [[Bachelor of Arts]] ([[Bachelor of Arts|B.A.]]) and [[Bachelor of Science]] ([[Bachelor of Science|B.S.]]) through its '''College of Liberal Arts'''.
  27. Today, Drew students fulfill a general education program distinguished by a flexibility that allows students to shape their individual academic programs to serve their own needs and interests, while developing the lifelong skills and values that a liberal arts education provides. Students also undertake academic programs that further emphasize depth, independent research, and experiential and collaborative teaming. To fulfill the required minor in the general education program, students may choose from many disciplinary and interdisciplinary offerings, or design a self-created minor subject to faculty approval.
  28. The '''College of Liberal Arts''' provides major concentrations in 27 academic areas, including: [[Anthropology]], [[Art]], [[Behavioral Science]], [[Biology]], [[Biochemistry]], [[Chemistry]], [[Classics]], [[Computer Science]], [[Economics]], [[English studies|English]], [[French]], [[German]], [[History]], [[Mathematics]], [[Mathematics & Computer Science]], [[Music]], [[Neurosciences]] (includes psychobiology), [[Philosophy]], [[Physics]], [[Political Science]], [[Psychology]], [[Religion|Religious Studies]], [[Russian]], [[Sociology]], [[Spanish]], [[Theatre Arts]], [[Women's Studies]].
  29. Minor concentrations are available in all areas that offer majors except [[neuroscience]], [[behavioral science]] and the joint [[mathematics and computer science]] program. In addition, the college offers these interdisciplinary minors: [[African-American/African Studies]], [[American Studies]], [[Archaeology]], [[Arts Administration and Museology]], [[Asian Studies]], [[Business Management]], [[Comparative Literature]], [[Chinese]], [[Environmental Studies]], [[European Studies]], [[Humanities]], [[Holocaust Studies]], [[Jewish Studies]], [[Latin American Studies]], [[Linguistics|Linguistic Studies]], [[Middle Eastern Studies]], [[Western Heritage]], and [[Writing]].
  30. [[Image:Drew_sw_bownehall.jpg|thumb|300px|S.W. Bowne Hall, modelled after Christ Church, Oxford, is currently home of the Caspersen School of Graduate Studies and several academic departments.]]
  31. The '''Caspersen School of Graduate Studies''' offers the traditional [[Master of Arts]] ([[Master of Arts|MA]]) and [[Doctor of Philosophy]] (or [[Doctor of Philosophy|Ph.D.]]) degrees. Areas of study include: Biblical Studies, Book History (M.A. only), English Literature, Liturgical Studies, Modern History & Literature, Religion & Society, Theological & Religious Studies, Wesleyan & Methodist Studies, and Women's Studies (M.A. only, Ph.D. concentration). It also offers an innovative interdisciplinary arts and letters program offering [[Master of Letters]] ([[Master of Letters|M.Litt.]]) and [[Doctor of Letters]] ([[Doctor of Letters|D.Litt.]]) degrees as well as a program in Medical Humanities, offering a Certificate of Medical Humanities (C.M.H.), as well as Masters (M.M.H.) and Doctoral degrees (D.M.H.).
  32. The '''Drew Theological Seminary''' offers degree programs designed to train candidates for the ministry. While affiliated with the [[United Methodist Church]] its programs are open to individuals of all faiths. Degrees offered include the [[Master of Divinity]] ([[Master of Divinity|M.Div.]]), [[Master of Theological Studies]] ([[Master of Theological Studies|M.T.S.]]), [[Master of Sacred Theology]] ([[Master of Sacred Theology|M.S.T.]]), and the [[Doctor of Ministry]] ([[Doctor of Ministry|D.Min.]]).
  33. Drew University has 15 sports teams in 11 sports, including: [[Baseball]], [[Basketball]], [[Cross Country]], [[Equestrian]], [[Fencing]], [[Field Hockey]], [[Lacrosse]], [[Soccer]], [[Softball]], [[Swimming]], and [[Tennis]]. Drew is a member of the [[National Collegiate Athletic Association]] in [[Division III]] [[athletics]], and competes with schools the [[Middle Atlantic Conference]], the [[Eastern College Athletic Conference]], the [[Mid Atlantic Collegiate Fencing Association]] and the [[Intercollegiate Horse Show Association]]. [[Division III]] institutions may not provide athletic scholarships. The sports teams are known as the ''Rangers'' and the university's mascot is the ''Ranger Bear''—a bear who wears a [[forest ranger|forest ranger's]] hat.
  34. The ''alma mater'' of Drew University is ''Amid the tow'ring forest'', written by John Barclay, Class of [[1936]]. The lyrics are, as follows:
  35. : ''All hail to Drew forevermore,''
  36. * '''N.B.''': Due to a change in school colors, the words "true" and "blue" in the last lines replaced the original text of "bold" and "gold" respectively.
  37. * [http://www.drew.edu/ www.drew.edu] — Official website of Drew University
  38. * [http://www.gcah.org/ The General Commission on Archives and History for The United Methodist Church] (known more familiarly as the ''Methodist Archives'')
  39. * [http://www.njshakespeare.org/ Shakespeare Theatre of New Jersey] (who call Drew University their home)
  40. * Cunningham, John. ''University in the Forest: The Story of Drew University''. (Third edition, 2002). ISBN 0893590177.

FarkEdit

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  2. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it. [[Wikipedia:Alternative outlets|Here are some possible outlets for rejected articles.]]

John GottiEdit

The following text fragments were added by Vanished_user_azby388723i8jfjh32 and at least the underlined text is still there at approx 2014-04-26 05:19:23.

  1. [[Image:John_Gotti.jpg|right|John Gotti]]
  2. '''John Gotti''' ([[October 27]], [[1940]]–[[June 10]], [[2002]]) (also known as '''The Dapper Don''' and '''The Teflon Don''') was the boss of the [[Gambino family]], [[New York]]'s largest [[mafia]] family, and one of the most feared.
  3. Gotti started as a mob assassin and worked his way up to becoming captain of one of the most powerful groups in the Gambino family. His group, however, was caught selling drugs, against the rules of the family, and was about to be disbanded. To prevent this, Gotti and others organized the shooting of the Gambino family boss, [[Paul Castellano]], on [[December 16]], [[1985]]. Castellano was shot six times outside Sparks Steakhouse in Manhattan and Gotti took control of the family. Following his ascension to the position of Gambino family godfather, Gotti became known as "The Dapper Don", appearing in public in expensive hand-tailored suits and reveling in media attention. Gotti was extremely popular in his Queens neighborhood, where he organized free lavish street parties and festivals, and had a reputation for keeping street crime out. The annual [[Independence Day (US)|Fourth of July]] party he hosted in [[Howard Beach]], which featured an elaborate fireworks display, was a major media event.
  4. Gotti was arrested several times throughout his career, and although he served time in both state and federal prison (including a [[manslaughter]] conviction in connection with the shooting death of a low-level Irish-American gangster in a tavern on [[Staten Island]] in [[1973]]), in the [[1980s]] he was referred to by the media as the "Teflon Don" as he avoided conviction on [[racketeering]] and assault charges. Gotti bribed or threatened jurors in several trials. He also made use of police informants to keep a step ahead of investigators.
  5. Gotti became something of a celebrity, and would frequently shake hands and pose for pictures with tourists outside the [[Ravenite Social Club]] in Manhattan where he conducted business.
  6. Gotti was long under intense surveillance by the [[FBI]]. His club, phones, and other places of business were all [[bugging|bugged]]. To get around this, he held meetings while walking down the street and played loud tapes of white noise. Eventually the FBI caught him on tape in an apartment above the club discussing a number of murders and other criminal activities. The FBI also caught Gotti denigrating his underboss [[Sammy Gravano|Salvatore "Sammy The Bull" Gravano]]. Angered and feeling he would be made a [[scapegoat]], Gravano agreed to testify against Gotti. Despite having confessed to participating in 19 murders, Gravano was given only a five year sentence and then entered the [[Witness Protection Program]].
  7. Gotti and several associates were arrested in [[1990]]. Gotti was convicted by a jury in the [[United States District Court]] in New York on [[April 2]], [[1992]] for 14 counts of [[murder]], [[conspiracy]] to commit murder, [[loansharking]], [[racketeering]], [[obstruction of justice]], illegal [[gambling]], and [[tax evasion]]. He was sentenced to life imprisonment without possibility of parole on [[June 23]] later that year.[http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/mob_bosses/gotti/don_24.html?sect=15] It was assumed that Gotti would serve his sentence at the new federal "supermax" facility at [[Florence, Colorado]], but instead he was sent to the older federal penitentiary at [[Marion, Illinois]], where he was kept in a solitary-confinement cell 23 hours a day.
  8. Gotti died of throat [[cancer]] at 12:45PM on [[June 10]], [[2002]] at the United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in [[Springfield, Missouri]], to which he had been transferred once the cancer was diagnosed.
  9. Following his death, the [[Roman Catholic]] [[Diocese]] of Brooklyn, New York decided that John Gotti would not be permitted a Mass of Christian Burial, or a Funeral Mass before burial. The Chancellor of the Diocese, Father Andrew Vaccari, had said that a Mass for the Dead would be permitted for Gotti at some point after the burial. The family was permitted to have Gotti buried at the mausoleum located at St. John's Cemetery in the [[Queens, New York]]. The Catholic Church has in the past had denied funeral masses to other mobsters, such as Carmine Galante, and former Gambino boss "Big Paul" Castellano. But unlike Gotti and Galante, Castellano was also denied burial within a Catholic cemetery.
  10. On [[March 6]], [[1962]], Gotti married Victoria DiGiorgio, by whom he had five children: Angela (born 1961), [[Victoria Gotti|Victoria]], John, Frank and Peter. Frank Gotti died in 1980 in a car accident; John Favara, the neighbour who was driving the car that hit Frank, was abducted shortly thereafter and his body was never found.
  11. In 2004, a new television show called ''Growing Up Gotti'' was aired on the [[A&E]] [[television network]], which features Gotti's daughter Victoria and her family. Soon afterwards, [http://www.thesmokinggun.com The Smoking Gun] website posted the videos made of Gotti and his family during a prison visit several years ago. Prison officials routinely videotaped all of Gotti's visits. The video, which was presented in five parts was called ''Blowing Up Gotti''.
  12. [[Category:1940 births|Gotti, John]]
  13. [[Category:2002 deaths|Gotti, John]]
  14. [[sv:John Gotti]]
  15. [[Image:John_Gotti.jpg|right|John Gotti]]
  16. '''John Gotti''' ([[October 27]], [[1940]]–[[June 10]], [[2002]]) (also known as '''The Dapper Don''' and '''The Teflon Don''') was the boss of the [[Gambino family]], [[New York]]'s largest [[mafia]] family, and one of the most feared.
  17. Gotti started as a mob assassin and worked his way up to becoming captain of one of the most powerful groups in the Gambino family. His group, however, was caught selling drugs, against the rules of the family, and was about to be disbanded. To prevent this, Gotti and others organized the shooting of the Gambino family boss, [[Paul Castellano]], on [[December 16]], [[1985]]. Castellano was shot six times outside Sparks Steakhouse in Manhattan and Gotti took control of the family. Following his ascension to the position of Gambino family godfather, Gotti became known as "The Dapper Don", appearing in public in expensive hand-tailored suits and reveling in media attention. Gotti was extremely popular in his Queens neighborhood, where he organized free lavish street parties and festivals, and had a reputation for keeping street crime out. The annual [[Independence Day (US)|Fourth of July]] party he hosted in [[Howard Beach]], which featured an elaborate fireworks display, was a major media event.
  18. Gotti was arrested several times throughout his career, and although he served time in both state and federal prison (including a [[manslaughter]] conviction in connection with the shooting death of a low-level Irish-American gangster in a tavern on [[Staten Island]] in [[1973]]), in the [[1980s]] he was referred to by the media as the "Teflon Don" as he avoided conviction on [[racketeering]] and assault charges. Gotti bribed or threatened jurors in several trials. He also made use of police informants to keep a step ahead of investigators.
  19. Gotti became something of a celebrity, and would frequently shake hands and pose for pictures with tourists outside the [[Ravenite Social Club]] in Manhattan where he conducted business.
  20. Gotti was long under intense surveillance by the [[FBI]]. His club, phones, and other places of business were all [[bugging|bugged]]. To get around this, he held meetings while walking down the street and played loud tapes of white noise. Eventually the FBI caught him on tape in an apartment above the club discussing a number of murders and other criminal activities. The FBI also caught Gotti denigrating his underboss [[Sammy Gravano|Salvatore "Sammy The Bull" Gravano]]. Angered and feeling he would be made a [[scapegoat]], Gravano agreed to testify against Gotti. Despite having confessed to participating in 19 murders, Gravano was given only a five year sentence and then entered the [[Witness Protection Program]].
  21. Gotti and several associates were arrested in [[1990]]. Gotti was convicted by a jury in the [[United States District Court]] in New York on [[April 2]], [[1992]] for 14 counts of [[murder]], [[conspiracy]] to commit murder, [[loansharking]], [[racketeering]], [[obstruction of justice]], illegal [[gambling]], and [[tax evasion]]. He was sentenced to life imprisonment without possibility of parole on [[June 23]] later that year.[http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/mob_bosses/gotti/don_24.html?sect=15] It was assumed that Gotti would serve his sentence at the new federal "supermax" facility at [[Florence, Colorado]], but instead he was sent to the older federal penitentiary at [[Marion, Illinois]], where he was kept in a solitary-confinement cell 23 hours a day.
  22. Gotti died of throat [[cancer]] at 12:45PM on [[June 10]], [[2002]] at the United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in [[Springfield, Missouri]], to which he had been transferred once the cancer was diagnosed.
  23. Following his death, the [[Roman Catholic]] [[Diocese]] of Brooklyn, New York decided that John Gotti would not be permitted a Mass of Christian Burial, or a Funeral Mass before burial. The Chancellor of the Diocese, Father Andrew Vaccari, had said that a Mass for the Dead would be permitted for Gotti at some point after the burial. The family was permitted to have Gotti buried at the mausoleum located at St. John's Cemetery in the [[Queens, New York]]. The Catholic Church has in the past had denied funeral masses to other mobsters, such as Carmine Galante, and former Gambino boss "Big Paul" Castellano. But unlike Gotti and Galante, Castellano was also denied burial within a Catholic cemetery.
  24. On [[March 6]], [[1962]], Gotti married Victoria DiGiorgio, by whom he had five children: Angela (born 1961), [[Victoria Gotti|Victoria]], John, Frank and Peter. Frank Gotti died in 1980 in a car accident; John Favara, the neighbour who was driving the car that hit Frank, was abducted shortly thereafter and his body was never found.
  25. In 2004, a new television show called ''Growing Up Gotti'' was aired on the [[A&E]] [[television network]], which features Gotti's daughter Victoria and her family. Soon afterwards, [http://www.thesmokinggun.com The Smoking Gun] website posted the videos made of Gotti and his family during a prison visit several years ago. Prison officials routinely videotaped all of Gotti's visits. The video, which was presented in five parts was called ''Blowing Up Gotti''.
  26. [[Category:1940 births|Gotti, John]]
  27. [[Category:2002 deaths|Gotti, John]]
  28. [[sv:John Gotti]]

Hitler Has Only Got One BallEdit

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  1. '''This page has been listed for [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion]][[Template:Vfd|.]]'''<br />
  2. Please see '''[[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion/{{PAGENAME}}|this page's entry]]''' on the [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion|votes for deletion]] page for justifications and discussion. If you don't want the page deleted, read the [[Wikipedia:Deletion policy|deletion policy]] and vote against its deletion. You may first wish to review some of the common [[Wikipedia:Votes for deletion phrases|deletion phrases]]. Please do not remove this notice or blank this page while the question is being considered. However, you are welcome to edit this article and improve it.

United States Bill of RightsEdit

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  1. ''A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  2. * [[First Amendment to the United States Constitution|Amendment I]] - Freedom of speech, religion, peaceable assembly, and petition the government. [http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/bill_of_rights/amendments_1-10.html#1]

Leon GolubEdit

The following text fragments were added by Vanished_user_azby388723i8jfjh32 and at least the underlined text is still there at approx 2014-04-26 05:19:45.

  1. [[Category:Rutgers University]]

Norman MacleanEdit

The following text fragments were added by Vanished_user_azby388723i8jfjh32 and at least the underlined text is still there at approx 2014-04-26 05:19:45.

  1. This text (with minor alteration) is taken with permission from [[http://www.thelandos.com/norman_maclean.htm|http://www.thelandos.com/norman_maclean.htm]]
  2. [[Category:American writers]]
  3. [[Category:American writers|Maclean, Norman]]