User:Rich Farmbrough/Jagged 85/Herbalism

HerbalismEdit

The following text fragments were added by Jagged_85 and at least the unerlined text is still there at approx 2014-04-24 20:19:20.

  1. The [[2nd millenium|second millenium]], however, also saw the beginning of a slow erosion of the pre-eminent position held by plants as sources of therapeutic effects. This began with the introduction of the [[physician]], the introduction of active chemical [[drug]]s (like [[arsenic]], [[copper sulfate]], [[iron]], [[mercury]], and [[sulfur]]), followed by the rapid development of [[chemistry]] and the other physical sciences, led increasingly to the dominance of [[chemotherapy]] - [[chemical substance|chemical]] medicine - as the orthodox system of the twentieth century.
  2. Indian [[Ayurveda]] medicine has been using herbs such as [[turmeric]] and [[curcumin]] possibly as early as 1900 B.C.<ref name=Aggarwal2007>{{cite journal |author=Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H |title=Curcumin: the Indian solid gold |journal=Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. |volume=595 |issue= |pages=1–75 |year=2007 |pmid=17569205 |doi= |url=}}</ref> Many other [[List of herbs and minerals in Ayurveda|herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda]] were later described by ancient Indian herbalists such as [[Charaka]] and [[Sushruta]] during the [[1st millenium BC]]. The first [[Chinese herbology|Chinese herbal]] book, the ''[[Shennong|Shennong Bencao Jing]]'', compiled during the [[Han Dynasty]] but dating back to a much earlier date, possibly 2700 B.C., lists 365 medicinal plants and their uses - including [[Ephedra sinica|ma-Huang]], the shrub that introduced the drug ephedrine to modern medicine. Succeeding generations augmented on the ''Shennong Bencao Jing'', as in the ''[[Yaoxing Lun]]'' (''Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs''), a 7th century [[Tang Dynasty]] treatise on herbal medicine.
  3. The uses of plants for medicine and other purposes changed little in [[Early Middle Ages|early medieval Europe]]. Many Greek and Roman writings on medicine, as on other subjects, were preserved by diligent hand copying of manuscripts in monasteries. The monasteries thus tended to become local centers of medical knowledge, and their [[herb garden]]s provided the raw materials for simple treatment of common disorders. At the same time, folk medicine in the home and village continues uninterrupted, supporting numerous wandering and settled herbalists. Among these were the “wise-women,” who prescribed herbal remedies often along with spells and enchantments. It was not until the [[late Middle Ages]] that women who were knowledgeable in herb lore became the targets of the witch hysteria. One of the most famous women in the herbal tradition was [[Hildegard of Bingen]]. A twelfth century Benedictine nun, she wrote a medical text called ''Causes and Cures''.
  4. [[Medical school]]s known as [[Bimaristan]] began to appear from the 9th century in the [[Islamic Golden Age|medieval Islamic world]], which was generally more advanced than [[Middle Ages|medieval Europe]] at the time. As a [[Islamic economics in the world|trading culture]], the [[Geography in medieval Islam|Arab travellers]] had access to plant material from distant places such as [[China]] and [[History of India|India]]. Herbals, medical texts and translations of the classics of antiquity filtered in from east and west.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/islamic_11.html|title=Pharmaceutics and Alchemy}}</ref> [[Muslim Agricultural Revolution|Muslim botanists]] and [[Medicine in medieval Islam|Muslim physicians]] significantly expanded on the earlier knowledge of [[materia medica]]. For example, [[al-Dinawari]] described more than 637 plant drugs in the 9th century,<ref name=Fahd-815>{{citation|last=Fahd|first=Toufic|contribution=Botany and agriculture|pages=815}}, in {{Harv|Morelon|Rashed|1996|pp=813-52}}</ref> and [[Ibn al-Baitar]] described more than 1,400 different plants, [[food]]s and drugs, over 300 of which were his own original discoveries, in the 13th century.<ref name=Diane>Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", ''OISE Papers'', in ''STSE Education'', Vol. 3.</ref> The [[experiment]]al [[scientific method]] was introduced into the field of materia medica in the 13th century by the [[Al-Andalus|Andalusian]]-Arab botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, the teacher of Ibn al-Baitar. Al-Nabati introduced [[empirical]] techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and he separated unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations. This allowed the study of materia medica to evolve into the [[science]] of [[pharmacology]].<ref>{{Citation
  5. |year=2003
  6. |title=The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West
  7. |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]
  8. [[Avicenna]]'s ''[[The Canon of Medicine]]'' (1025) is considered the first [[pharmacopoeia]].<ref>[[Philip Khuri Hitti|Philip K. Hitti]] (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), ''Miracle of Islamic Science'', Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).</ref><ref>Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/AgricultureRevolution2.pdf The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe]. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.</ref> This was followed by other pharmacopoeia books written by [[Abu-Rayhan Biruni]] in the 11th century,<ref>Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/AgricultureRevolution2.pdf The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe]. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.</ref> [[Ibn Zuhr]] (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491),<ref>M. Krek (1979). "The Enigma of the First Arabic Book Printed from Movable Type", ''Journal of Near Eastern Studies'' '''38''' (3), p. 203-212.</ref> and [[Ibn al-Baitar|Ibn Baytar]] in the 14th century.<ref>Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), ''Miracle of Islamic Science'', Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.</ref> The origins of [[clinical pharmacology]] also date back to the [[Middle Ages]] in Avicenna's ''The Canon of Medicine'', [[Peter of Spain]]'s ''Commentary on Isaac'', and John of St Amand's ''Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas''.<ref>D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", ''Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics'' '''67''' (5), p. 447-450 [448-449].</ref> In particular, the ''Canon'' introduced [[clinical trial]]s,<ref name=Tschanz>David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", ''Heart Views'' '''4''' (2).</ref>
  9. [[randomized controlled trial]]s,<ref name=Eldredge>Jonathan D. Eldredge (2003), "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship", ''Health Information and Libraries Journal'' '''20''', p. 34–44 [36].</ref><ref name=Bloom>Bernard S. Bloom, Aurelia Retbi, Sandrine Dahan, Egon Jonsson (2000), "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine", ''International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care'' '''16''' (1), p. 13–21 [19].</ref>
  10. and [[efficacy]] tests.<ref name=Brater-449>D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", ''Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics'' '''67''' (5), p. 447-450 [449].</ref><ref name=Daly>Walter J. Daly and D. Craig Brater (2000), "Medieval contributions to the search for truth in clinical medicine", ''Perspectives in Biology and Medicine'' '''43''' (4), p. 530–540 [536], [[Johns Hopkins University Press]].</ref>
  11. Alongside the [[university]] system, [[Traditional medicine|folk medicine]] continued to thrive. The continuing importance of herbs for the centuries following the Middle Ages is indicated by the hundreds of herbals published after the invention of printing in the fifteenth century. Theophrastus’ ''Historia Plantarum'' was one of the first books to be printed, but Dioscorides’ ''De Materia Medica'', Avicenna's ''Canon of Medicine'' and Avenzoar's pharmacopoeia were not far behind.
  12. [[Medical school]]s known as [[Bimaristan]] began to appear from the 9th century in the [[Islamic Golden Age|medieval Islamic world]], which was generally more advanced than [[Middle Ages|medieval Europe]] at the time. As a [[Islamic economics in the world|trading culture]], the [[Geography in medieval Islam|Arab travellers]] had access to plant material from distant places such as [[China]] and [[History of India|India]]. Herbals, medical texts and translations of the classics of antiquity filtered in from east and west.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/islamic_11.html|title=Pharmaceutics and Alchemy}}</ref> [[Muslim Agricultural Revolution|Muslim botanists]] and [[Medicine in medieval Islam|Muslim physicians]] significantly expanded on the earlier knowledge of [[materia medica]]. For example, [[al-Dinawari]] described more than 637 plant drugs in the 9th century,<ref name=Fahd-815>{{citation|last=Fahd|first=Toufic|contribution=Botany and agriculture|pages=815}}, in {{Harv|Morelon|Rashed|1996|pp=813-52}}</ref> and [[Ibn al-Baitar]] described more than 1,400 different plants, [[food]]s and drugs, over 300 of which were his own original discoveries, in the 13th century.<ref name=Diane>Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", ''OISE Papers'', in ''STSE Education'', Vol. 3.</ref> The [[experiment]]al [[scientific method]] was introduced into the field of materia medica in the 13th century by the [[Al-Andalus|Andalusian]]-Arab botanist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, the teacher of Ibn al-Baitar. Al-Nabati introduced [[empirical]] techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and he separated unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations. This allowed the study of materia medica to evolve into the [[science]] of [[pharmacology]].<ref>{{Citation |first=Toby |last=Huff |year=2003 |title=The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West |page=218 |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |isbn=0521529948 }}</ref>
  13. [[Avicenna]]'s ''[[The Canon of Medicine]]'' (1025) is considered the first [[pharmacopoeia]],<ref>[[Philip Khuri Hitti|Philip K. Hitti]] (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), ''Miracle of Islamic Science'', Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).</ref><ref>Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/AgricultureRevolution2.pdf The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe]. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.</ref> and lists 800 tested drugs, plants and minerals.<ref name=Jacquart>{{citation|last=Jacquart|first=Danielle|journal=European Review|volume=16|issue=2|pages=219–227 [223]|title=Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances}}</ref> This was followed by other pharmacopoeia books written by [[Abu-Rayhan Biruni]] in the 11th century,<ref>Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/AgricultureRevolution2.pdf The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe]. The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.</ref> [[Ibn Zuhr]] (Avenzoar) in the 12th century (and printed in 1491),<ref>M. Krek (1979). "The Enigma of the First Arabic Book Printed from Movable Type", ''Journal of Near Eastern Studies'' '''38''' (3), p. 203-212.</ref> and [[Ibn al-Baitar|Ibn Baytar]] in the 14th century.<ref>Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), ''Miracle of Islamic Science'', Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.</ref> The origins of [[clinical pharmacology]] also date back to the [[Middle Ages]] in Avicenna's ''The Canon of Medicine'', [[Peter of Spain]]'s ''Commentary on Isaac'', and John of St Amand's ''Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas''.<ref>D. Craig Brater and Walter J. Daly (2000), "Clinical pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Principles that presage the 21st century", ''Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics'' '''67''' (5), p. 447-450 [448-449].</ref> In particular, the ''Canon'' introduced [[clinical trial]]s,<ref name=Tschanz>David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", ''Heart Views'' '''4''' (2).</ref>
  14. Indian [[Ayurveda]] medicine has been using herbs such as [[turmeric]] and [[curcumin]] possibly as early as 1900 B.C.<ref name=Aggarwal2007>{{cite journal |author=Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H |title=Curcumin: the Indian solid gold |journal=Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. |volume=595 |issue= |pages=1–75 |year=2007 |pmid=17569205 |doi= |url=}}</ref> Many other [[List of herbs and minerals in Ayurveda|herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda]] were later described by ancient Indian herbalists such as [[Charaka]] and [[Sushruta]] during the [[1st millenium BC]]. The ''[[Sushruta Samhita]]'' attributed to Sushruta in the 6th century BC describes 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources, and 57 preparations based on animal sources.<ref>{{citation|last=Girish Dwivedi|first=Shridhar Dwivedi|year=2007|title=History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence|publisher=[[National Informatics Centre]]|url=http://medind.nic.in/iae/t07/i4/iaet07i4p243.pdf|accessdate=2008-10-08}}</ref>