帮助:显示数学公式

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MediaWiki使用一系列TeX标记,包括从LaTeXAMS-LaTeX的扩展来显示数学公式。根据用户的参数设置及公式的复杂程度,公式会用PNG图像显示,或用简单的HTML元素模拟。

准确地说,MediaWiki通过Texvc过滤标记,结果传回到TeX的命令用于事实上的渲染。因此,只有完整TeX语言的一小部分是支持的,参见下方以了解详情。

要渲染数学公式,您必须在LocalSettings.php中设置$wgUseTeX = true;

技术信息

语法

传统的数学标记在XML形式的标签math内:<math> ... </math>。旧版的编辑工具栏有此链接,可以通过自定义WikiEditor工具栏来添加类似地按钮。图标是像这样的:  

然而,也可以使用解析器函数#tag来显示公式: {{#tag:math|...}}。这个方法更加强大,因为解析器函数的参数会先展开,然后再解释为TeX代码。所以这里可以包含模板参数、变量、其他解析器函数、其他模板等。然而,请注意TeX语法内如果遇到双重花括号,则必须用空格隔开,以免被误解析为模板调用。另外,如果要在公式里显示“|”管道符号,需要用{{!}}代替。

TeX中,就像在HTML中,额外的空格和新行会被忽略。

渲染

PNG图像的替换文本,可以用于视觉障碍或无法读图的读者,当文本被选中和复制时会被使用,默认为图像的维基源代码,不包括<math></math>。你可以通过清楚地为math元素添加一个alt属性来覆盖它。比如,<math alt="π的算术平方根">\sqrt{\pi}</math>产生图像 ,其替换文本为“π的算术平方根”。

除了函数和操作符名称,只要是数学变量,字母都是斜体的,数字不是斜体。对于其他文本,像变量标签,如要避免渲染成像棉量那样的斜体,使用\text\mbox\mathrm。你也可以通过\operatorname{...}来定义新的函数。比如,<math>\text{abc}</math>产生 。这对特殊字符不起作用,它们会被忽略,除非整个<math>表达式是以HTML的形式渲染的:

  • <math>\text {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčďèéěêëìíîïňñòóôõöřšť÷øùúůûüýÿž}</math>
  • <math>\text {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčèéêëìíîïñòóôõö÷øùúûüýÿ}\,</math>

会产生:

  •  
  •  

参见错误798以获取详细信息。

虽然使用 \mbox 比使用 \text 能让更多字符正确显示

比如:

  • <math>\mbox {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčďèéěêëìíîïňñòóôõöřšť÷øùúůûüýÿž}</math>
  • <math>\mbox {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzàáâãäåæçčèéêëìíîïñòóôõö÷øùúûüýÿ}\,</math>

会显示:

  •  
  •  

但是 \mbox{ð}\mbox{þ} 会出错:

  •  
  •  

请使用 \text{}

  •  
  •  

特殊字符

以下字符是保留字,和LaTeX下的含义相同,或者在所有字体下都不可用。

# $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \

如果需要显示这些保留字,就要在前面加上斜杠(\)。

<math>\# \$ \% \& \_ \{ \} </math>显示为 

其他拥有特殊名称:

<math> \hat{} \quad \tilde{} \quad \backslash </math>显示为 

TeX和HTML

在介绍用于产生特殊字符的TeX标记前需要注意的是,就像这个比较表显示的那样,有时类似的结果可以在HTML中实现(参见特殊字符)。

TeX语法(强制PNG TeX渲染 HTML语法 HTML渲染
<math>\alpha</math>   {{math|<var>&alpha;</var>}} α
<math> f(x) = x^2\,</math>   {{math|''f''(<var>x</var>) {{=}} <var>x</var><sup>2</sup>}} f(x) = x2
<math>\sqrt{2}</math>   {{math|{{radical|2}}}} 2
<math>\sqrt{1-e^2}</math>   {{math|{{radical|1 &minus; ''e''&sup2;}}}} 1 − e²

左侧的代码可以产生右侧的符号, 后者除‘=’外也可以直接放在维基源代码中.

语法 渲染
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infty;
&asymp; &prop; {{=}} &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; 
&times; &sdot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &Oslash; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; 
&cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; 
&rArr; &hArr; &rarr; &harr; &uarr; 
&alefsym; - &ndash; &mdash; 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ = ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× ⋅ ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ Ø ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇔ → ↔ ↑
ℵ - – —

該專案已經同時在HTML和TeX確定了,因為在某些情況下它們各自有不同的優勢。

HTML的好处

  1. HTML中的公式的行為更像常規文本。內聯 HTML 公式始終與 HTML 文字的其餘部分正確對齊,並且在某種程度上可以剪切和粘貼(如果使用MathJax呈現TeX,則這不是問題一旦,bug 32694修復,對齊對於 PNG 渲染來說應該不是問題。)
  2. 公式的背景和字體大小與HTML內容的其餘部分匹配(可以通過使用命令 \pagecolor\definecolor修復TeX)和外觀遵循CSS和瀏覽器設置,而字體則方便地更改以説明您識別公式。
  3. 使用HTML代碼作為公式的頁面使用較少的數據進行傳輸,這對於互聯網連接速度較慢或有上限的使用者(例如,使用撥號或移動互聯網連接的使用者,這些使用者的速度很慢或數據上限)非常重要。
  4. 用戶端文本連結(也稱為腳本集)可以訪問帶有 HTML 代碼的公式排版。
  5. 使用數學範本輸入的公式的顯示可以通過修改所涉及的範本來方便地更改;此修改將影響所有相關公式,而無需任何手動干預。
  6. The HTML code, if entered diligently, will contain all semantic information to transform the equation back to TeX or any other code as needed. It can even contain differences TeX does not normally catch, e.g. {{math|''i''}} for the imaginary unit and {{math|<var>i</var>}} for an arbitrary index variable.
  7. 無論使用什麼設備來呈現公式,使用HTML代碼的公式將盡可能清晰地呈現,

TeX的好处

  1. TeX is semantically more precise than HTML.
    1. In TeX, "<math>x</math>" means "mathematical variable  ", whereas in HTML "x" is generic and somewhat ambiguous.
    2. On the other hand, if you encode the same formula as "{{math|<var>x</var>}}", you get the same visual result x and no information is lost. This requires diligence and more typing that could make the formula harder to understand as you type it. However, since there are far more readers than editors, this effort is worth considering if no other rendering options are available (such as MathJax, which was requested on bug 31406 for use on Wikimedia wikis and is being implemented on Extension:Math as a new rendering option).
  2. One consequence of point 1 is that TeX code can be transformed into HTML, but not vice-versa.[1] This means that on the server side we can always transform a formula, based on its complexity and location within the text, user preferences, type of browser, etc. Therefore, where possible, all the benefits of HTML can be retained, together with the benefits of TeX. It is true that the current situation is not ideal, but that is not a good reason to drop information/contents. It is more a reason to help improve the situation.
  3. Another consequence of point 1 is that TeX can be converted to MathML (e.g. by MathJax) for browsers which support it, thus keeping its semantics and allowing the rendering to be better suited for the reader’s graphic device.
  4. TeX is the preferred text formatting language of most professional mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. It is easier to persuade them to contribute if they can write in TeX.
  5. TeX has been specifically designed for typesetting formulae, so input is easier and more natural if you are accustomed to it, and output is more aesthetically pleasing if you focus on a single formula rather than on the whole containing page.
  6. Once a formula is done correctly in TeX, it will render reliably, whereas the success of HTML formulae is somewhat dependent on browsers or versions of browsers. Another aspect of this dependency is fonts: the serif font used for rendering formulae is browser-dependent and it may be missing some important glyphs. While the browser generally capable to substitute a matching glyph from a different font family, it need not be the case for combined glyphs (compare ‘  ’ and ‘  ’).
  7. When writing in TeX, editors need not worry about whether this or that version of this or that browser supports this or that HTML entity. The burden of these decisions is put on the software. This does not hold for HTML formulae, which can easily end up being rendered wrongly or differently from the editor’s intentions on a different browser.[2]
  8. TeX formulae, by default, render larger and are usually more readable than HTML formulae and are not dependent on client-side browser resources, such as fonts, and so the results are more reliably WYSIWYG.
  9. While TeX does not assist you in finding HTML codes or Unicode values (which you can obtain by viewing the HTML source in your browser), cutting and pasting from a TeX PNG in Wikipedia into simple text will return the LaTeX source.
^  unless your wikitext follows the style of point 1.2
^  The entity support problem is not limited to mathematical formulae though; it can be easily solved by using the corresponding characters instead of entities, as the character repertoire links do, except for cases where the corresponding glyphs are visually indiscernible (e.g. &ndash; for ‘–’ and &minus; for ‘−’).

In some cases it may be the best choice to use neither TeX nor the html-substitutes, but instead the simple ASCII symbols of a standard keyboard (see below, for an example).

函数、符号和特殊字符

声调/变音符号

\acute{a} \grave{a} \hat{a} \tilde{a} \breve{a}  
\check{a} \bar{a} \ddot{a} \dot{a}  

标准函数

\sin a \cos b \tan c  
\sec d \csc e \cot f  
\arcsin h \arccos i \arctan j  
\sinh k \cosh l \tanh m \coth n  
\operatorname{sh}o\,\operatorname{ch}p\,\operatorname{th}q  
\operatorname{arsinh}r\,\operatorname{arcosh}s\,\operatorname{artanh}t  
\lim u \limsup v \liminf w \min x \max y  
\inf z \sup a \exp b \ln c \lg d \log e \log_{10} f \ker g  
\deg h \gcd i \Pr j \det k \hom l \arg m \dim n  

模运算

s_k \equiv 0 \pmod{m}  
a\,\bmod\,b  

衍生

\nabla \, \partial x \, dx \, \dot x \, \ddot y\, dy/dx\, \frac{dy}{dx}\, \frac{\partial^2 y}{\partial x_1\,\partial x_2}  

集合

\forall \exists \empty \emptyset \varnothing  
\in \ni \not\in \notin \not\ni \subset \subseteq \supset \supseteq  
\cap \bigcap \cup \bigcup \biguplus \setminus \smallsetminus  
\sqsubset \sqsubseteq \sqsupset \sqsupseteq \sqcap \sqcup \bigsqcup  

运算符

+ \oplus \bigoplus \pm \mp -  
\times \otimes \bigotimes \cdot \circ \bullet \bigodot  
\star * / \div \frac{1}{2}  

逻辑

\land (or \and) \wedge \bigwedge \bar{q} \to p  
\lor \vee \bigvee \lnot \neg q \And  

\sqrt{2} \sqrt[n]{x}  

关系

\sim \approx \simeq \cong \dot= \overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}  
< \le \ll \gg \ge > \equiv \not\equiv \ne \mbox{or} \neq \propto  
\lessapprox \lesssim \eqslantless \leqslant \leqq \geqq \geqslant \eqslantgtr \gtrsim \gtrapprox  

几何符号

\Diamond \Box \triangle \angle \perp \mid \nmid \| 45^\circ  

箭头

\leftarrow (or \gets) \rightarrow (or \to) \nleftarrow \nrightarrow \leftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \longleftarrow \longrightarrow \longleftrightarrow  
\Leftarrow \Rightarrow \nLeftarrow \nRightarrow \Leftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow \Longleftarrow (or \impliedby) \Longrightarrow (or \implies) \Longleftrightarrow (or \iff)  
\uparrow \downarrow \updownarrow \Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \nearrow \searrow \swarrow \nwarrow  
\rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons  
\curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \Rrightarrow \rightarrowtail \looparrowright  
\curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \Lleftarrow \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft  
\mapsto \longmapsto \hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow  

特殊

\And \eth \S \P \% \dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots \colon  
\smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright \infty \bot \top  
\vdash \vDash \Vdash \models \lVert \rVert \imath \hbar  
\ell \mho \Finv \Re \Im \wp \complement  
\diamondsuit \heartsuit \clubsuit \spadesuit \Game \flat \natural \sharp  

未排序(新内容)

\vartriangle \triangledown \lozenge \circledS \measuredangle \nexists \Bbbk \backprime \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown  
\square \blacksquare \blacklozenge \bigstar \sphericalangle \diagup \diagdown \dotplus \Cap \Cup \barwedge  
\veebar \doublebarwedge \boxminus \boxtimes \boxdot \boxplus \divideontimes \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes  
\rightthreetimes \curlywedge \curlyvee \circleddash \circledast \circledcirc \centerdot \intercal \leqq \leqslant  
\eqslantless \lessapprox \approxeq \lessdot \lll \lessgtr \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \doteqdot \risingdotseq  
\fallingdotseq \backsim \backsimeq \subseteqq \Subset \preccurlyeq \curlyeqprec \precsim \precapprox \vartriangleleft  
\Vvdash \bumpeq \Bumpeq \eqsim \gtrdot  
\ggg \gtrless \gtreqless \gtreqqless \eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \thicksim \thickapprox \supseteqq  
\Supset \succcurlyeq \curlyeqsucc \succsim \succapprox \vartriangleright \shortmid \between \shortparallel \pitchfork  
\varpropto \blacktriangleleft \therefore \backepsilon \blacktriangleright \because \nleqslant \nleqq \lneq \lneqq  
\lvertneqq \lnsim \lnapprox \nprec \npreceq \precneqq \precnsim \precnapprox \nsim \nshortmid  
\nvdash \nVdash \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \nsubseteq \nsubseteqq \varsubsetneq \subsetneqq \varsubsetneqq \ngtr  
\subsetneq  
\ngeqslant \ngeqq \gneq \gneqq \gvertneqq \gnsim \gnapprox \nsucc \nsucceq \succneqq  
\succnsim \succnapprox \ncong \nshortparallel \nparallel \nvDash \nVDash \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \nsupseteq  
\nsupseteqq \varsupsetneq \supsetneqq \varsupsetneqq  
\jmath \surd \ast \uplus \diamond \bigtriangleup \bigtriangledown \ominus  
\oslash \odot \bigcirc \amalg \prec \succ \preceq \succeq  
\dashv \asymp \doteq \parallel  
\ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner  
\Coppa\coppa\varcoppa\Digamma\Koppa\koppa\Sampi\sampi\Stigma\stigma\varstigma  

大型运算符

下标、上标、积分

功能 语法 效果
上标 a^2  
下标 a_2  
分组 a^{2+2}  
a_{i,j}  
结合上下标(不含/含水平分离) x_2^3  
{x_2}^3  
超乘方 10^{10^{8}}  
Preceding and/or Additional sub & super _nP_k  
\sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\prod_a^b  
{}_1^2\!\Omega_3^4  
堆叠 \overset{\alpha}{\omega}  
\underset{\alpha}{\omega}  
\overset{\alpha}{\underset{\gamma}{\omega}}  
\stackrel{\alpha}{\omega}  
衍生作品 x', y'', f', f''  
x^\prime, y^{\prime\prime}  
導數點 \dot{x}, \ddot{x}  
底線、上橫線、向量 \hat a \ \bar b \ \vec c  
\overrightarrow{a b} \ \overleftarrow{c d} \ \widehat{d e f}  
\overline{g h i} \ \underline{j k l}  
\not 1 \ \cancel{123}  
箭頭 A \xleftarrow{n+\mu-1} B \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i-1} C  
上括号 \overbrace{ 1+2+\cdots+100 }^{\text{sum}\,=\,5050}  
下括号 \underbrace{ a+b+\cdots+z }_{26\text{ terms}}  
求和 \sum_{k=1}^N k^2  
Sum (force \textstyle) \textstyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2  
求积 \prod_{i=1}^N x_i  
求积 (force \textstyle) \textstyle \prod_{i=1}^N x_i  
上积 \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i  
上积 (force \textstyle) \textstyle \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i  
极限 \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n  
极限 (force \textstyle) \textstyle \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n  
积分 \int\limits_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx  
积分(交替限制样式) \int_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx  
积分(强制\textstyle \textstyle \int\limits_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx  
积分 (force \textstyle, alternate limits style) \textstyle \int_{-N}^{N} e^x\, dx  
二重积分 \iint\limits_D \, dx\,dy  
三重积分 \iiint\limits_E \, dx\,dy\,dz  
四重积分 \iiiint\limits_F \, dx\,dy\,dz\,dt  
线积分和路径积分 \int_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy  
闭合线或路径积分 \oint_C x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy  
交集 \bigcap_1^n p  
并集 \bigcup_1^k p  

分数、矩阵、多线

功能 语法 效果
分数 \frac{1}{2}=0.5  
小型分数(使用"\textstyle") \tfrac{1}{2} = 0.5  
大型分数 \dfrac{k}{k-1} = 0.5  
大分子和小分子的混合物 \dfrac{ \tfrac{1}{2}[1-(\tfrac{1}{2})^n] }{ 1-\tfrac{1}{2} } = s_n  
连分数 (注意格式的不同)
\cfrac{2}{ c + \cfrac{2}{ d + \cfrac{1}{2} } } = a
\qquad
\dfrac{2}{ c + \dfrac{2}{ d + \dfrac{1}{2} } } = a
 
二项式系数 \binom{n}{k}  
小型(“文本样式”)二项式系数 \tbinom{n}{k}  
大型(“显示样式”)二项式系数 \dbinom{n}{k}  
矩阵
\begin{matrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{matrix}
 
\begin{vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{vmatrix}
 
\begin{Vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Vmatrix}
 
\begin{bmatrix}
0      & \cdots & 0      \\
\vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 
0      & \cdots & 0
\end{bmatrix}
 
\begin{Bmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Bmatrix}
 
\begin{pmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v 
\end{pmatrix}
 
\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}
a&b\\ c&d
\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)
 
数组
\begin{array}{|c|c||c|} a & b & S \\
\hline
0&0&1\\
0&1&1\\
1&0&1\\
1&1&0
\end{array}
 
範例
f(n) = 
\begin{cases} 
n/2,  & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even} \\
3n+1, & \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is odd} 
\end{cases}
 
方程組
\begin{cases}
3x + 5y +  z &= 1 \\
7x - 2y + 4z &= 2 \\
-6x + 3y + 2z &= 3
\end{cases}
 
分解一個長表示式,以便在必要時將其換行
<math>f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n</math>
<math>= a_0 + a_1x + a_2x^2 + \cdots</math>
   
多行方程式
\begin{align}
f(x) & = (a+b)^2 \\
& = a^2+2ab+b^2
\end{align}
 
\begin{alignat}{2}
f(x) & = (a-b)^2 \\
& = a^2-2ab+b^2
\end{alignat}
 
聯立多行方程式 (left, center, right)
\begin{array}{lcl}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z  
\end{array}
 
\begin{array}{lcr}
z        & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z     
\end{array}
 

为大表达式加括号、线条等

功能 语法 效果
不良 ( \frac{1}{2} )  
良好 \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )  

你可以用 \left\right 来显示不同的括号:

功能 语法 效果
圆括号 \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )  
方括号 \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack  
花括号 (note the backslash before the braces in the code) \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace  
尖括弧 \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle  
豎線和雙豎線(注意:「豎線」用於呈現絕對值函數) \left | \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \|  
取整函數: \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil  
斜杠和反斜杠 \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash  
向上、向下和向上向下箭頭 \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow  
分隔符可以混合使用,只要都使用\left\right \left [ 0,1 \right )
\left \langle \psi \right |
 
 
如果您不希望顯示分隔符,請使用 \left.\right. \left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X  
分隔符的大小 \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( \dots \Bigg] \bigg] \Big] \big]  
\big\{ \Big\{ \bigg\{ \Bigg\{ \dots \Bigg\rangle \bigg\rangle \Big\rangle \big\rangle  
\big| \Big| \bigg| \Bigg| \dots \Bigg\| \bigg\| \Big\| \big\|  
\big\lfloor \Big\lfloor \bigg\lfloor \Bigg\lfloor \dots \Bigg\rceil \bigg\rceil \Big\rceil \big\rceil  
\big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow \dots \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow  
\big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow \dots \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow  
\big / \Big / \bigg / \Bigg / \dots \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash  

字母和字體

Texvc無法呈現任意Unicode字符。可以透過下表顯示可顯示的字元。 對於其他字元,例如西里爾字母,它們可以作為Unicode或HTML實體在運行文本中輸入,但無法在公式顯示。

希腊字母
\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta  
\Eta \Theta \Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu  
\Nu \Xi \Omicron \Pi \Rho \Sigma \Tau  
\Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega  
\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta  
\eta \theta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu  
\nu \xi \omicron \pi \rho \sigma \tau  
\upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega  
\varepsilon \digamma \vartheta \varkappa  
\varpi \varrho \varsigma \varphi  
黑板粗體/字形
\mathbb{A} \mathbb{B} \mathbb{C} \mathbb{D} \mathbb{E} \mathbb{F} \mathbb{G}  
\mathbb{H} \mathbb{I} \mathbb{J} \mathbb{K} \mathbb{L} \mathbb{M}  
\mathbb{N} \mathbb{O} \mathbb{P} \mathbb{Q} \mathbb{R} \mathbb{S} \mathbb{T}  
\mathbb{U} \mathbb{V} \mathbb{W} \mathbb{X} \mathbb{Y} \mathbb{Z}  
\C \N \Q \R \Z  
粗體(向量)
\mathbf{A} \mathbf{B} \mathbf{C} \mathbf{D} \mathbf{E} \mathbf{F} \mathbf{G}  
\mathbf{H} \mathbf{I} \mathbf{J} \mathbf{K} \mathbf{L} \mathbf{M}  
\mathbf{N} \mathbf{O} \mathbf{P} \mathbf{Q} \mathbf{R} \mathbf{S} \mathbf{T}  
\mathbf{U} \mathbf{V} \mathbf{W} \mathbf{X} \mathbf{Y} \mathbf{Z}  
\mathbf{a} \mathbf{b} \mathbf{c} \mathbf{d} \mathbf{e} \mathbf{f} \mathbf{g}  
\mathbf{h} \mathbf{i} \mathbf{j} \mathbf{k} \mathbf{l} \mathbf{m}  
\mathbf{n} \mathbf{o} \mathbf{p} \mathbf{q} \mathbf{r} \mathbf{s} \mathbf{t}  
\mathbf{u} \mathbf{v} \mathbf{w} \mathbf{x} \mathbf{y} \mathbf{z}  
\mathbf{0} \mathbf{1} \mathbf{2} \mathbf{3} \mathbf{4}  
\mathbf{5} \mathbf{6} \mathbf{7} \mathbf{8} \mathbf{9}  
粗體(希臘字母)
\boldsymbol{\Alpha} \boldsymbol{\Beta} \boldsymbol{\Gamma} \boldsymbol{\Delta} \boldsymbol{\Epsilon} \boldsymbol{\Zeta}  
\boldsymbol{\Eta} \boldsymbol{\Theta} \boldsymbol{\Iota} \boldsymbol{\Kappa} \boldsymbol{\Lambda} \boldsymbol{\Mu}  
\boldsymbol{\Nu} \boldsymbol{\Xi} \boldsymbol{\Omicron} \boldsymbol{\Pi} \boldsymbol{\Rho} \boldsymbol{\Sigma} \boldsymbol{\Tau}  
\boldsymbol{\Upsilon} \boldsymbol{\Phi} \boldsymbol{\Chi} \boldsymbol{\Psi} \boldsymbol{\Omega}  
\boldsymbol{\alpha} \boldsymbol{\beta} \boldsymbol{\gamma} \boldsymbol{\delta} \boldsymbol{\epsilon} \boldsymbol{\zeta}  
\boldsymbol{\eta} \boldsymbol{\theta} \boldsymbol{\iota} \boldsymbol{\kappa} \boldsymbol{\lambda} \boldsymbol{\mu}  
\boldsymbol{\nu} \boldsymbol{\xi} \boldsymbol{\omicron} \boldsymbol{\pi} \boldsymbol{\rho} \boldsymbol{\sigma} \boldsymbol{\tau}  
\boldsymbol{\upsilon} \boldsymbol{\phi} \boldsymbol{\chi} \boldsymbol{\psi} \boldsymbol{\omega}  
\boldsymbol{\varepsilon} \boldsymbol{\digamma} \boldsymbol{\vartheta} \boldsymbol{\varkappa}  
\boldsymbol{\varpi} \boldsymbol{\varrho} \boldsymbol{\varsigma} \boldsymbol{\varphi}  
斜體
\mathit{A} \mathit{B} \mathit{C} \mathit{D} \mathit{E} \mathit{F} \mathit{G}  
\mathit{H} \mathit{I} \mathit{J} \mathit{K} \mathit{L} \mathit{M}  
\mathit{N} \mathit{O} \mathit{P} \mathit{Q} \mathit{R} \mathit{S} \mathit{T}  
\mathit{U} \mathit{V} \mathit{W} \mathit{X} \mathit{Y} \mathit{Z}  
\mathit{a} \mathit{b} \mathit{c} \mathit{d} \mathit{e} \mathit{f} \mathit{g}  
\mathit{h} \mathit{i} \mathit{j} \mathit{k} \mathit{l} \mathit{m}  
\mathit{n} \mathit{o} \mathit{p} \mathit{q} \mathit{r} \mathit{s} \mathit{t}  
\mathit{u} \mathit{v} \mathit{w} \mathit{x} \mathit{y} \mathit{z}  
\mathit{0} \mathit{1} \mathit{2} \mathit{3} \mathit{4}  
\mathit{5} \mathit{6} \mathit{7} \mathit{8} \mathit{9}  
羅馬字體
\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \mathrm{C} \mathrm{D} \mathrm{E} \mathrm{F} \mathrm{G}  
\mathrm{H} \mathrm{I} \mathrm{J} \mathrm{K} \mathrm{L} \mathrm{M}  
\mathrm{N} \mathrm{O} \mathrm{P} \mathrm{Q} \mathrm{R} \mathrm{S} \mathrm{T}  
\mathrm{U} \mathrm{V} \mathrm{W} \mathrm{X} \mathrm{Y} \mathrm{Z}  
\mathrm{a} \mathrm{b} \mathrm{c} \mathrm{d} \mathrm{e} \mathrm{f} \mathrm{g}  
\mathrm{h} \mathrm{i} \mathrm{j} \mathrm{k} \mathrm{l} \mathrm{m}  
\mathrm{n} \mathrm{o} \mathrm{p} \mathrm{q} \mathrm{r} \mathrm{s} \mathrm{t}  
\mathrm{u} \mathrm{v} \mathrm{w} \mathrm{x} \mathrm{y} \mathrm{z}  
\mathrm{0} \mathrm{1} \mathrm{2} \mathrm{3} \mathrm{4}  
\mathrm{5} \mathrm{6} \mathrm{7} \mathrm{8} \mathrm{9}  
德文尖角體
\mathfrak{A} \mathfrak{B} \mathfrak{C} \mathfrak{D} \mathfrak{E} \mathfrak{F} \mathfrak{G}  
\mathfrak{H} \mathfrak{I} \mathfrak{J} \mathfrak{K} \mathfrak{L} \mathfrak{M}  
\mathfrak{N} \mathfrak{O} \mathfrak{P} \mathfrak{Q} \mathfrak{R} \mathfrak{S} \mathfrak{T}  
\mathfrak{U} \mathfrak{V} \mathfrak{W} \mathfrak{X} \mathfrak{Y} \mathfrak{Z}  
\mathfrak{a} \mathfrak{b} \mathfrak{c} \mathfrak{d} \mathfrak{e} \mathfrak{f} \mathfrak{g}  
\mathfrak{h} \mathfrak{i} \mathfrak{j} \mathfrak{k} \mathfrak{l} \mathfrak{m}  
\mathfrak{n} \mathfrak{o} \mathfrak{p} \mathfrak{q} \mathfrak{r} \mathfrak{s} \mathfrak{t}  
\mathfrak{u} \mathfrak{v} \mathfrak{w} \mathfrak{x} \mathfrak{y} \mathfrak{z}  
\mathfrak{0} \mathfrak{1} \mathfrak{2} \mathfrak{3} \mathfrak{4}  
\mathfrak{5} \mathfrak{6} \mathfrak{7} \mathfrak{8} \mathfrak{9}  
書法/字形
\mathcal{A} \mathcal{B} \mathcal{C} \mathcal{D} \mathcal{E} \mathcal{F} \mathcal{G}  
\mathcal{H} \mathcal{I} \mathcal{J} \mathcal{K} \mathcal{L} \mathcal{M}  
\mathcal{N} \mathcal{O} \mathcal{P} \mathcal{Q} \mathcal{R} \mathcal{S} \mathcal{T}  
\mathcal{U} \mathcal{V} \mathcal{W} \mathcal{X} \mathcal{Y} \mathcal{Z}  
希伯來字母
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth  
功能 语法 效果
非斜体字符 \mbox{abc}  
混合斜体 (差) \mbox{if} n \mbox{is even}  
混合斜体 (佳) \mbox{if }n\mbox{ is even}  
混合斜体(更多: ~ is a non-breaking space, 用 "\ " 强制空格) \mbox{if}~n\ \mbox{is even}  

颜色

公式可以有颜色:

  • {\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{YellowOrange}2x}-{\color{OliveGreen}1}
     
  • x_{1,2}=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{\color{Red}b^2-4ac}}{2a}
     

所有的已命名颜色可以在这里(已存档)找到。

如果需要对公式进行标识,不要仅仅使用颜色。黑白打印后就看不出颜色了,而且有人可能是色盲。另见en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Color coding

格式问题

空格

注意TeX自动处理大多数空格,但有时你可能需要手动控制。

功能 语法 效果
double quad space a \qquad b  
quad space a \quad b  
文本空間 a\ b  
沒有PNG轉換的文字空間 a \mbox{ } b  
large space a\;b  
medium space a\>b [not supported]
small space a\,b  
no space ab  
small negative space a\!b  

自動間距可能會在很長的表達式中被破壞(因為它們在TeX中產生一個過滿的hbox):

<math>0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots</math>
 

這可以透過在整個表達式兩測放置一對大括弧{}來補救:

<math>{0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots}</math>
 

与正常文本流对齐

由于默认css

img.tex { vertical-align: middle; }

 这样的行内表达式应该效果不错。

If you need to align it otherwise, use <math style="vertical-align:-100%;">...</math> and play with the vertical-align argument until you get it right; however, how it looks may depend on the browser and the browser settings.

Also note that if you rely on this workaround, if/when the rendering on the server gets fixed in future releases, as a result of this extra manual offset your formulae will suddenly be aligned incorrectly. So use it sparingly, if at all.

Commutative diagrams

要制作一个交换图表,有三个步骤:

TeX中的图表

Xy-pic在线指导)是最强大,最通用的TeX图表包。

更簡單的套件包括:

以下是Xy-pic的模板,再加上一個增加dvips中邊距的邊及技巧,以免圖表被過度截斷(在TUGboat中建議TUGboat, Volume 17 1996, No. 3):

\documentclass{amsart}
\usepackage[all, ps]{xy} % 載入 XY-Pic 包
                         % 使用印表機驅動程式以實現更平滑的曲線
\usepackage{color}       % 用於不可視的框架
\begin{document}
\thispagestyle{empty} % 無頁碼
\SelectTips{eu}{}     % 歐拉箭號(提示)
\setlength{\fboxsep}{0pt} % 框架框邊距
{\color{white}\framebox{{\color{black}$$ % 邊距框架

\xymatrix{ % 該圖是一個 3x3 矩陣
%%% 圖表在此 %%%
}

$$}}} % end math, end frame
\end{document}

如果改用文檔類\documentclass[preview]{standalone},則會自動裁剪並輸出pdf檔。[1]

转换成SVG

在LaTeX(或TeX)中生成圖表後,可以使用以下命令序列將其轉換為SVG文件:

pdflatex file.tex
pdfcrop --clip file.pdf tmp.pdf
pdf2svg tmp.pdf file.svg
  (rm tmp.pdf at the end)

此過程需要pdflatex、pdfcroppdf2svg程式。

如果您沒有這些程式,可以使用以下指令

latex 文件.tex
dvipdfm 文件.dvi

以獲取圖表的PDF版本。

項目

通常,如果沒有TeX和Ghostscript,您將無法獲得圖表,而inkscape程式是手動創建或修改圖表的有用工具。 還有一個實用程式pstoedit,它支援從Postscript檔直接轉換為許多向量圖形格式,但它需要一個非自由外掛程式才能轉換為SVG,無論格式如何,此編輯者都沒有成功地使用它來轉換來自TeX創建的檔中帶有對角線箭頭的圖表。

這些程式為:

上传文件

由於圖表是你自己的作品,所以可以把它上傳到Wikimedia Commons,這樣所有文本(也就是所有語言)都可以使用它,而不必把它複製到他們各字語言的維基上。(如果您之前已將文件上傳到共用資源以外的其他位置,請到跨維基將圖像移動到共享資源。

Check size
Before uploading, check that the default size of the image is neither too large nor too small by opening in an SVG application and viewing at default size (100% scaling), otherwise adjust the -y option to dvips.
Name
Make sure the file has a meaningful name.
Upload
Login to Wikimedia Commons, then upload the file; for the Summary, give a brief description.

Now go to the image page and add a description, including the source code, using this template (using {{Information}}):

{{Information

|Description =
{{en| 描述[[:en:Link to WP page|topic]]
}}
|Source = {{own}}

建立如下:

[[:en:meta:Help:Displaying a formula#Commutative diagrams]]; 原始碼如下。
|Date = 創建日期,如1999-12-31
|Author = [[User:您的使用者名|您的真實姓名]]
|Permission = 公有領域; (or other license) 見下文。
}}

== LaTeX來源 ==
<source lang="latex">
% LaTeX來源在此
</source>

== [[Commons:Copyright tags|Licensing]]: ==
{{self|PD-self (or other license)|author=[[User:YourUserName|Your Real Name]]}}

[[Category:描述性類別,如"群論"]]
[[Category:Commutative diagrams]]
Source code
  • Include the source code in the image page, in a LaTeX source section, so that the diagram can be edited in future.
  • Include the complete .tex file, not just the fragment, so future editors do not need to reconstruct a compilable file.
License
The most common license for commutative diagrams is PD-self; some use PD-ineligible, especially for simple diagrams, or other licenses. Please do not use the GFDL, as it requires the entire text of the GFDL to be attached to any document that uses the diagram.
Description
If possible, link to a Wikipedia page relevant to the diagram.
Category
Include [[Category:Commutative diagrams]], so that it appears in commons:Category:Commutative diagrams. There are also subcategories, which you may choose to use.
Include image
Now include the image on the original page via [[Image:Diagram.svg]]

范例

一個符合性的示例圖是commons:Image:PSU-PU.svg

化学

有兩種方法可以呈現化學方程式中使用的化學和式:

  • <math chem>
  • <chem>

<chem>X</chem><math chem>\ce{X}</math>的縮寫

(其中 X 是化學總和式)

根據mathjax documentation,技術上來說<math chem>是一個啟用了擴展mhchemmath標籤。

請注意,命令 ceecf 處於禁用狀態,因為它們在 mhchem LaTeX package documentation軟體包文檔中被標記為已棄用。

If the formula reaches a certain "complexity", spaces might be ignored (<chem>A + B</chem> might be rendered as if it were <chem>A+B</chem> with a positive charge). In that case, write <chem>A{} + B</chem> (and not <chem>{A} + {B}</chem> as was previously suggested). This will allow auto-cleaning of formulae once the bug will be fixed and/or a newer mhchem version will be used.

参见下面的例子。

示例

化学

<chem>C6H5-CHO</chem>
 
<chem>\mathit{A} ->[\ce{+H2O}] \mathit{B}</chem>
 
<math chem>A \ce{->[\ce{+H2O}]} B</math>
 
<chem>SO4^2- + Ba^2+ -> BaSO4 v</chem>
 
<chem>H2NCO2- + H2O <=> NH4+ + CO3^2-</chem>
 
<chem>H2O</chem>
 
<chem>Sb2O3</chem>
 
<chem>H+</chem>
 
<chem>CrO4^2-</chem>
 
<chem>AgCl2-</chem>
 
<chem>[AgCl2]-</chem>
 
<chem>Y^{99}+</chem>
 
<chem>Y^{99+}</chem>
 
<chem>H2_{(aq)}</chem>
 
<chem>NO3-</chem>
 
<chem>(NH4)2S</chem>
 

二次多项式

 

<math>ax^2 + bx + c = 0</math>

二次多项式(强制PNG渲染)

 

<math>ax^2 + bx + c = 0\,</math>

二次公式

 

<math>x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}</math>

大括号和分数

 

<math>2 = \left(
 \frac{\left(3-x\right) \times 2}{3-x}
 \right)</math>

 

 <math>S_{\text{new}} = S_{\text{old}} - \frac{ \left( 5-T \right) ^2} {2}</math>
 

积分

 

<math>\int_a^x \!\!\!\int_a^s f(y)\,dy\,ds
 = \int_a^x f(y)(x-y)\,dy</math>

求和

 

<math>\sum_{m=1}^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{m^2\,n}
 {3^m\left(m\,3^n+n\,3^m\right)}</math>

微分方程

 

<math>u'' + p(x)u' + q(x)u=f(x),\quad x>a</math>

复数

 

<math>|\bar{z}| = |z|,
 |(\bar{z})^n| = |z|^n,
 \arg(z^n) = n \arg(z)</math>

极限

 

<math>\lim_{z\rightarrow z_0} f(z)=f(z_0)</math>

积分方程

 

<math>\phi_n(\kappa) =
 \frac{1}{4\pi^2\kappa^2} \int_0^\infty
 \frac{\sin(\kappa R)}{\kappa R}
 \frac{\partial}{\partial R}
 \left[R^2\frac{\partial D_n(R)}{\partial R}\right]\,dR</math>

例子

 

<math>\phi_n(\kappa) = 
 0.033C_n^2\kappa^{-11/3},\quad
 \frac{1}{L_0}\ll\kappa\ll\frac{1}{l_0}</math>

延續和案例

 

<math>
 f(x) =
 \begin{cases}
 1 & -1 \le x < 0 \\
 \frac{1}{2} & x = 0 \\
 1 - x^2 & \mbox{otherwise}
 \end{cases}
 </math>

前綴下標

 

 <math>{}_pF_q(a_1,\dots,a_p;c_1,\dots,c_q;z)
 = \sum_{n=0}^\infty
 \frac{(a_1)_n\cdots(a_p)_n}{(c_1)_n\cdots(c_q)_n}
 \frac{z^n}{n!}</math>

分數和小分數

  
<math> \frac {a}{b}\  \tfrac {a}{b} </math>

漏洞反馈

討論、錯誤報告和功能請求應轉到Wikitech-l mailing list。這些也可以在Mediazilla的「MediaWiki擴展」下提交。

未来

將來,一旦添加數學擴展MathJax選項足夠穩定,它可能會在維基媒體wiki上啟用(根據bug 31406),作為TeX公式的PNG渲染的更好替代方案。MathJax是一個JavaScript庫,用於內聯渲染數學公式,可用於將LaTeX轉換為MathML,以便瀏覽器直接解釋。

參見

注释

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