The primary page on Wikipedia that explains the purpose of blocks, the specifics of why users may be blocked, and the workflows to request a block or unblock.
Its talk page archives contain some interesting suggestions: Archive 20 has a lengthy discussion about expunging blocks from the block log. Archive 21 has a discussion about temporarily revoking a user's autoconfirmed status as an alternative to a full block, a discussion about allowing users to still edit multiple talk pages while blocked, and two discussions about CheckUser blocking transparency. Archive 22 also has a discussion about CheckUsers, someone proposed a block that is only lifted when a training module has been completed, and a discussion about the process to request an unblock. Archive 23 (the latest archive) has a proposal for admins to restrict users to only perform some minor actions (edit categories, etc.)
The policy page on Wikipedia that explains the purpose of bans, the processes of bans, and details how bans are different from blocks.
We are already discussing productizing some of this work in the Editing restrictions discussion. For example, per-page blocking or interaction blocks.
It's talk page mostly discussing the contents and wording of the policy. In the archives there are some suggestions for software, including a logging system in Archive 3 as well as a suggestion that the duration could reset when violated.
The guideline page that explains to users how to request an unblock, both for cases of accidental blocks (e.g. an IP block accidentally covers an entire school) or for clemency (e.g. a user apologizes for their actions.)
It's talk page has a brief discussion why requesting an unblock sometimes requires a user to send an email. The only archive page does not have any pertinent suggestions.
A proposed policy page that describes how the feature of 'deferred changes' would work. In some situations (per page or per user) edits submitted would require approval before publishing live. It has been suggested that we introduce a new form of block that requires all non-talk edits to be deferred. We would need to shepherd through Deferred Changes first, which is probably out of scope for our team.
Policy page that documents the allowed and disallowed uses for operating multiple Wikimedia accounts and the processes for reporting and investigating suspected socks.
It's talk page and archives have some interesting suggestions on how to prevent unwitting sock accounts or allow users to manage multiple legitimate accounts, but I found nothing pertinent to blocking.
This policy page outlines how constructive users can request an IP block exception. (For example, if Bob is a great editor but a troll has used his IP range, Bob should be allowed to edit while logged-in but anons should not be able to edit.)
This is an information about autoblocking, which is a feature that automatically blocks the IP used by a blocked account. It explains how to appeal autoblocks if you're be accidentally affected by an autoblock.